Sociology Chapter 5 and 7
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What is Deviance?
behavior that violates the standards of conduct or expectations of a group or society
Involves violation of groups norms, which may or may not be formalized into law
What is Stigma?
Labels society used to devalue members of certain social groups
Technological innovations can redefine social interactions and standards of behavior related to them
What is Social control?
Techniques and strategies employed for preventing deviant human behavior in any society
What are Sanctions?
penalties and rewards for conduct concerning a social norm
What is the Milgram experiment?
Experimenter instructed people to administer increasingly painful electric shocks to a subject
What is Conformity?
Going along with peers who have no special right to direct behavior
What is obedience?
Compliance with higher authorities in an hierarchical structure
What is Informal social control?
Used casually to enforce norms
examples-Smiles, laughter, raised eyebrows, ridicule
What is formal social control?
Carried out by authorized agents
What is law?
Governmental social control
The legal order reflects values of those in a position to exercise authority
What is control theory?
Connection to members of society leads people to systematically conform to a society’s norms
What is the 2 functionalist perspective?
Punishments established within a culture help define acceptable behavior and contribute to stability
Merton’s Theory of Deviance-
Anomie Theory of Deviance:
What is anomie?
Loss of direction felt in society when social control of individual behavior has become ineffective
What is Anomie Theory of Deviance?
5 Basic Forms of Adaptation
What is the Interactionaist perspective?
Cultural Transmission Theory
What is Cultural Transmission?
humans learn how to behave in social situations, whether properly or improperly
What is Differential Association?
Process through which exposure to attitudes favorable to criminal acts leads to the violation of rules
What is Social Disorganization Theory?
Increases in crime and deviance attributed to absence or breakdown of communal relationships and social institutions
Some claim social disorganization theory to “blame the victim”
what is Labeling Theory?
Attempts to explain why some people are viewed as deviants while others are not; also known as societal reaction approach
What is Societal-reaction approach?
response to an act, not the behavior, determines deviance
What is conflict perspective?
People with power protect their own interests and define deviance to suit their needs
Contend that the entire criminal justice system in the United States treats suspects differently based on their race, ethnic, or social-class
What is the feminist perspective?
Adler and Chesney-Lind suggest existing approaches to deviance and crime developed with men in mind
Society tends to treat women in stereotypical fashion
Cultural views and attitudes toward women influence how they are perceived and labeled
What is crime?
Violation of criminal law for which governmental authority applies formal penalties
What is a victim less crime?
Willing exchange among adults of widely desired, but illegal, goods and services
What is organized crime?
group that regulates relations between various criminal enterprises involved in illegal activities
What is status?
socially defined positions within a large group or society
What is an ascribed status?
Status one is born with
What is an achieved status?
A status that is earned
What is a master status?
status that dominates other statuses and determines a person’s general position in society
What is social role?
set of expectations for people who occupy a given status
What is role conflict?
when incompatible expectations arise from two or more social positions held by sameperson
What is role strain?
Difficulties that arise when same social position imposes conflicting demands andexpectations
What is role exit?
Process of disengagement from a role that is central to one’s identity to establish a new role
- Search for alternatives
- Action stage
- Creation of a new identity
What is groups?
any number of people with similar norms, values, and expectations who interact on a regular basis
What is a primary group?
small group with intimate face to face association and cooperation (Cooley)
What is primary group?
formal, impersonal groups with little social intimacy or mutual understanding
What is in-group?
any groups or categories to which people feel they do belong
What is out-group?
any groups or categories to which people feel they do not belong
What is reference group?
any group that individuals use as standard for evaluating their own behavior
What is coalitions?
temporary or permanent alliances geared toward common goal
What is social network?
series of social relationships that link a person directly to others, and through them indirectly to still more people
What is social institutes?
Organized pattern of beliefs and behavior centered on basic social needs
What is the functionalist view? (social institutes)
- Functionalist view
- 1.Replacing personnel
- 2.Teaching new recruits
- 3.Producing and distributing goods and services
- 4.Preserving order
- 5.Providing and maintaining a sense of purpose
What is the conflict view? (social institutes)
Major institutions help maintain privileges of most powerful individuals and groups within society
Social institutions such as education have inherently conservative natures
Social institutions operate in gendered and racist environments
What is the interactionist view? (social institutes)
Social institutes affect everyday behavior
Social behavior conditioned by roles and statuses we accept
What is Formal organization?
group designed for special-purpose and structured for maximum efficiency
What is Bureaucracy?
component of formal organization that uses rules and hierarchical ranking to achieve efficiency
What is ideal type bureaucracy?
(Weber) a construct or model for evaluating specific cases
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