Sociology Chapter 5 and 7

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Sociology Chapter 5 and 7
2014-04-02 09:44:46
deviance and social status
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  1. What is Deviance?
    behavior that violates the standards of conduct or expectations of a group or society

    Involves violation of groups norms, which may or may not be formalized into law
  2. What is Stigma?
    Labels society used to devalue members of certain social groups
  3. Technological innovations can redefine social interactions and standards of behavior related to them
  4. What is Social control?
    Techniques and strategies employed for preventing deviant human behavior in any society
  5. What are Sanctions?
    penalties and rewards for conduct concerning a social norm
  6. What is the Milgram experiment?
    Experimenter instructed people to administer increasingly painful electric shocks to a subject
  7. What is Conformity?
    Going along with peers who have no special right to direct behavior
  8. What is obedience?
    Compliance with higher authorities in an hierarchical structure
  9. What is Informal social control?
    Used casually to enforce norms

    examples-Smiles, laughter, raised eyebrows, ridicule
  10. What is formal social control?
    Carried out by authorized agents
  11. What is law?
    Governmental social control

    The legal order reflects values of those in a position to exercise authority
  12. What is control theory?
    Connection to members of society leads people to systematically conform to a society’s norms
  13. What is the 2 functionalist perspective?
    Durkheim’s Legacy-

    Punishments established within a culture help define acceptable behavior and contribute to stability

    Merton’s Theory of Deviance-

    Anomie Theory of Deviance:
  14. What is anomie?
    Loss of direction felt in society when social control of individual behavior has become ineffective
  15. What is Anomie Theory of Deviance?
    5 Basic Forms of Adaptation

    • Conformist
    • Innovator
    • Ritualist
    • Retreatist
    • Rebel
  16. What is the Interactionaist perspective?
    Cultural Transmission Theory
  17. What is Cultural Transmission?
    humans learn how to behave in social situations, whether properly or improperly
  18. What is Differential Association?
    Process through which exposure to attitudes favorable to criminal acts leads to the violation of rules
  19. What is Social Disorganization Theory?
    Increases in crime and deviance attributed to absence or breakdown of communal relationships and social institutions

    Some claim social disorganization theory to “blame the victim”
  20. what is Labeling Theory?
    Attempts to explain why some people are viewed as deviants while others are not; also known as societal reaction approach
  21. What is Societal-reaction approach?
    response to an act, not the behavior, determines deviance
  22. What is conflict perspective?
    People with power protect their own interests and define deviance to suit their needs

    Contend that the entire criminal justice system in the United States treats suspects differently based on their race, ethnic, or social-class
  23. What is the feminist perspective?
    Adler and Chesney-Lind suggest existing approaches to deviance and crime developed with men in mind

    Society tends to treat women in stereotypical fashion

    Cultural views and attitudes toward women influence how they are perceived and labeled
  24. What is crime?
    Violation of criminal law for which governmental authority applies formal penalties
  25. What is a victim less crime?
    Willing exchange among adults of widely desired, but illegal, goods and services
  26. What is organized crime?
    group that regulates relations between various criminal enterprises involved in illegal activities
  27. What is status?
    socially defined positions within a large group or society
  28. What is an ascribed status?
    Status one is born with
  29. What is an achieved status?
    A status that is earned
  30. What is a master status?
    status that dominates other statuses and determines a person’s general position in society
  31. What is social role?
    set of expectations for people who occupy a given status
  32. What is role conflict?
    when incompatible expectations arise from two or more social positions held by sameperson
  33. What is role strain?
    Difficulties that arise when same social position imposes conflicting demands andexpectations
  34. What is role exit?
    Process of disengagement from a role that is central to one’s identity to establish a new role

    • Doubt
    • Search for alternatives
    • Action stage
    • Creation of a new identity
  35. What is groups?
    any number of people with similar norms, values, and expectations who interact on a regular basis
  36. What is a primary group?
    small group with intimate face to face association and cooperation (Cooley)
  37. What is primary group?
    formal, impersonal groups with little social intimacy or mutual understanding
  38. What is in-group?
    any groups or categories to which people feel they do belong
  39. What is out-group?
    any groups or categories to which people feel they do not belong
  40. What is reference group?
    any group that individuals use as standard for evaluating their own behavior
  41. What is coalitions?
    temporary or permanent alliances geared toward common goal
  42. What is social network?
    series of social relationships that link a person directly to others, and through them indirectly to still more people
  43. What is social institutes?
    Organized pattern of beliefs and behavior centered on basic social needs
  44. What is the functionalist view? (social institutes)
    • Functionalist view
    • 1.Replacing personnel
    • 2.Teaching new recruits
    • 3.Producing and distributing goods and services
    • 4.Preserving order
    • 5.Providing and maintaining a sense of purpose
  45. What is the conflict view? (social institutes)
    Major institutions help maintain privileges of most powerful individuals and groups within society

    Social institutions such as education have inherently conservative natures

    Social institutions operate in gendered and racist environments
  46. What is the interactionist view? (social institutes)
    Social institutes affect everyday behavior

    Social behavior conditioned by roles and statuses we accept
  47. What is Formal organization?
    group designed for special-purpose and structured for maximum efficiency
  48. What is Bureaucracy?
    component of formal organization that uses rules and hierarchical ranking to achieve efficiency
  49. What is ideal type bureaucracy?
    (Weber) a construct or model for evaluating specific cases