Biology Chapter 19 genetics
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what is genes?
DNA sequences that contain instructions for building proteins
What is genetics?
study of genes and their transmission from one generation to the next
What is genome?
sum total of all of organism’s DNA
What is chromosomes?
structures within the nucleus, composed of DNA and protein
Where are the genes located?
in the chromosomes
how many chromosomes do humans have?
the 22 pairs of chromosomes are?
One pair of the chromosomes are?
Sex chromosomes that determine gender
what is Homologous chromosomes?
One member of each pair is inherited from each parent
Look alike (size, shape, banding pattern)
Not identical: may have different alleles of particular genes
What is alleles?
alternative forms of a gene
Alleles arise from mutation
What is homozygous?
two identical alleles at a particular locus
What is heterozygous?
Two different alleles at a particular locus
What is genotype?
an individual's complete set of alleles
What is phenotype?
observable physical and functional traits
ex. hair color, skin color
How is phenotype determined?
inherited alleles and environmental factors
What did Mendel do?
Worked with pea plants in the 1850s in Austria
Did multiple genetic experiments to develop basic rules of inheritance
What is the law of segregation?
Gametes carry only one allele of each gene
What is the Law of Independent assortment?
Genes for different traits are separated from each other independently during meiosis
What is dominant allele?
Masks or suppresses the expression of its complementary allele
Always expressed, even if heterozygous
What is Recessive Allele?
Will not be expressed if paired with a dominant allele (heterozygous)
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