Biology Chapter 19 genetics

The flashcards below were created by user gabby12142 on FreezingBlue Flashcards.

  1. what is genes?
    DNA sequences that contain instructions for building proteins
  2. What is genetics?
    study of genes and their transmission from one generation to the next
  3. What is genome?
    sum total of all of organism’s DNA
  4. What is chromosomes?
    structures within the nucleus, composed of DNA and protein
  5. Where are the genes located?
    in the chromosomes
  6. how many chromosomes do humans have?
    23 pairs
  7. the 22 pairs of chromosomes are?
  8. One pair of the chromosomes are?
    Sex chromosomes that determine gender
  9. what is Homologous chromosomes?
    One member of each pair is inherited from each parent

    Look alike (size, shape, banding pattern)

    Not identical: may have different alleles of particular genes
  10. What is alleles?
    alternative forms of a gene

    Alleles arise from mutation
  11. What is homozygous?
    two identical alleles at a particular locus
  12. What is heterozygous?
    Two different alleles at a particular locus
  13. What is genotype?
    an individual's complete set of alleles
  14. What is phenotype?
    observable physical and functional traits

    ex. hair color, skin color
  15. How is phenotype determined?
    inherited alleles and environmental factors
  16. What did Mendel do?
    Worked with pea plants in the 1850s in Austria

    Did multiple genetic experiments to develop basic rules of inheritance
  17. What is the law of segregation?
    Gametes carry only one allele of each gene
  18. What is the Law of Independent assortment?
    Genes for different traits are separated from each other independently during meiosis
  19. What is dominant allele?
    Masks or suppresses the expression of its complementary allele

    Always expressed, even if heterozygous
  20. What is Recessive Allele?
    Will not be expressed if paired with a dominant allele (heterozygous)
Card Set:
Biology Chapter 19 genetics
2014-04-02 14:22:58
biology genetics
genetics bio
Show Answers: