PSY 201 Ch 4 Set A: Sensation Intro - Hearing

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PSY 201 Ch 4 Set A: Sensation Intro - Hearing
2014-04-02 13:14:23

exam 3
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  1. stimulus
    any form of energy to which the sense organs (senses) can respond
  2. senses
    sense organs; they translate information from outside the nervous system into neural activity
  3. sensations
    messages from the senses that make up raw information that affects behavior and mental processes; sense organs respond to external stimuli
  4. perception
    process through which messages from the senses are given meaning; brain's interpretation of sensation
  5. accessory structures
    sensory element that modifies incoming energy (light, sound); reshape the incoming energy; accessory structures include lens of the eye, pinna of the ear
  6. neural receptors
    receptor cells; perform transduction which is changing environmental stimuli into neural activity
  7. sensory nerves
    afferent neurons transfer information from the receptor cells to the central nervous system
  8. information goes to the thalamus except for ____. The thalamus...
    smell; is a "relay station" or "switch board" that projects the information to the appropriate area of cerebral cortex
  9. message is received in CNS (brain) - cerebral cortex
    brain interprets the message, this is the perception; subject to sensory adaptation
  10. sensory adaptation
    constant exposure to unchanging stimulation causes a decrease in the sense organs response
  11. sound
    the repetitive fluctuation in the pressure of a medium such as air or water
  12. hearing
    physical characteristics of sound waveforms
  13. amplitude
    height from baseline to peak
  14. wavelength
    distance from peak to peak
  15. frequency
    cycles/second (Hz)
  16. psychological dimensions of sound
    physical characteristics of sound determine the psychological dimensions of sound
  17. amplitude of sound waves
    loudness, greater amplitude = louder sound
  18. frequency of sound waves
    pitch, how high or low a tone is
  19. timbre
    complex wave patterns are added to lowest frequency of a sound; quality of sound helps you determine a note played on a flute vs. one played on a clarinet
  20. outer ear
    pinna; auditory (ear) canal
  21. middle ear
    tympanic membrane; ossicles
  22. pinna
    collects and shapes sound
  23. tympanic membrane
    ear drum, vibrates
  24. ossicles
    3 tiny bones: malleus (hammer), incus (anvil), stapes (stirrup); amplify sound (vibration)
  25. stapes
    one of ossicle bones, attached to another membrane; oval window (sound vibrations pass through)
  26. inner ear
    semi-circular canals and vestibular; cochlea; basilar membrane; organ of corti
  27. semi-circular canals and vestibular sacs
    fluid filled organs for equilibrium
  28. cochlea
    snail-like structure, transduction occurs here
  29. basilar membrane
    a sheet of tissue that runs the length of the cochlea (has hair cells on tissue)
  30. organ of corti
    rests on the basilar membrane; contains thousands of tiny hair cells; transduces sound into neural signals; hair cells connect to auditory nerve (inner ear); also called the acoustic nerve
  31. auditory nerve
    bundle of nerves that goes into the brain to auditory cortex in temporal lobe
  32. locating sounds/auditory localization
    partly by timing of sound arriving at each ear; partly by sound intensity difference at each ear
  33. deafness
    two of most delicate structures in the body are the middle and inner ear; damage or deterioration can result in deafness; two types: conduction and nerve
  34. conduction deafness
    bones of middle ear fuse together; prevents accurate conduction of vibrations; results from damage to acoustic nerve, more commonly the hair cells; damage occurs gradually with age
  35. treatments for conduction deafness
    surgery to break ossicles apart; plastic replacements for ossicles; hearing aids
  36. nerve deafness
    possible environmental causes: exposure to loud noises; ear buds on personal stereos
  37. treatments for nerve deafness
    cochlear implants