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Identity Development begins with a stage of unexamined identity, in which the person identifies with mainstream cultural ideals, ignoring or denying their social group status.
stage one of identity development
The person begins to explore his or her social or cultural status and heritage forming a new identity.This involves a period of immersion in activities and groups of ones own social group
stage two of identity development
The individual internalizes the newly formed social identity, strengthening commitment to the social group, before emerging into transformed relations with mainstream culture
stage three of identity development
Community psychology researchers need to be clear on their fundamental values and their assumptions about research and its relation to community and social action
What values and assumptions do we bring to our work?
The most distinctive quality of community psychology research is its process of conducting research within a participatory, collaborative relationship with citizens and communities.
How can we promote community participation and collaboration in research?
Often, the cultural assumptions and experiences of researchers differ from those of community members, so an early task is for researchers to deepen their knowledge of the community with whom they seek to work.
How do we understand the cultural and social contexts of this research?
Community researchers make decisions about the levels of analysis they will focus on. Community psychology draws our attentions to social systems at higher levels.
At what ecological levels of analysis will we conduct this research?
What issues are the 4 questions for community psychology concerned with?
- -What values and assumptions do we bring to our work?
- -How can we promote community participation and collaboration in research?
- -How do we understand the cultural and social contexts of this research?
- -At what ecological levels of analysis will we conduct this research?
-pursuit of objectivity and value free neutrality in research
-an ultimate goal of understanding cause and effect relationships
-hypothesis testing with control of extraneous factors to clarify cause and effect
-measurement as the source of the data
-seek to construct generalized laws based on research findings
-recognize that no researcher is truly objective yet seek to reduce biases and build shared understandings as much as possible
-adapt experimental methods, hypothesis testing, and psychological measurement to community settings
-knowledge is built through shared understanding, using rigorous methods and standards of the scientific community
-emphasis is placed on understanding cause and effect relationships
-assume that knowing occurs in a relationship and is a product of social connection between researcher and research participant
-seek to understand a particular social context and what it means to the people who experience it
-Qualitative research methods such as interviewing, often provide the best technique
-emphasis on understanding contexts, meanings, and lived experiences of participants; qualitative methods
-Knowledge is shaped by power relationships and location within social systems
-emphasis is placed on integrating research and action, attending to unheard voices, and challenging injustice using a variety of methods
-assume that knowledge is shaped by power relationships created and maintained by social institutions and belief systems
-ask questions about who has the power to state what is true and who is able to define the nature of research relationships
-take an activist stance
involves identifying the persons to be included in the study and making explicit the researchers assumptions and values
-concerns how researcher and participant create knowledge through developing relationships.
-The researcher poses open ended questions
-the participant describes experiences and ideas and the researcher provides an attentive, empathetic, affirming audience
analysis of the information gathered in asking and witnessing, making wider sense of patterns in the experiences of participants
the products of qualitative research and whether these are used to further the interests or capacities of research participants
Four essential steps Stein and Mankowskis “Acts”
What are the four stages of implementation of a prevention program?
- -Experimental Development
- -Technological Application
- -Diffusion of Innovation
- -Widespread Implementation
the diffusion stage brings the program to a few communities only. Implementation becomes widespread when a program continutes to show its effectiveness in a wide variety of settings and is transferred from its developers to new implementers, who in turn conduct further program diffusion. Program has widespread impact only when this final stage occurs.
-a program is adopted by other organizations or communities and demonstrates effectiveness under real-world condition when not under the direct scrutiny and guidance of its developers.
-Refers to the broader theory of the processes through which new ideas/technology/products spread through cultures
Diffusion of Innovation
a program demonstrates its effectiveness under real-world conditions, similar to the conditions for which it is eventually intended but still under the guidance of its developers
a program demonstrates its effectiveness under small-scale, optimal, highly controlled conditions compared to a control group
What three systems does the Interactive Systems Framework for Dissemination and Implementation (ISF) include?
- -Prevention Synthesis and Translation System
- -Prevention and Support System
- -Prevention Delivery System
addresses the fact that information regarding promising prevention approaches is often difficult to access because it is published in multiple journal articles in specialized language and without the level of detail necessary for program adoption
-acknowledges that there is the need for someone to find all the info, synthesize it, and translate it into a form that is useful for potential adopters
Prevention Synthesis and Translation System
addresses the capacity of organizations and communities to successfully adopt new innovations
Prevention Support System
describes the systems (organizations, communities, or governmental agencies) that are actually implementing the new program or innovation
prevention delivery system
a collaborative cycle of activities in which research (assessment) continually informs action (implementation)
Participatory Action research
What is the focus of Community-Centered models?
communities need to be able to answer the question “how do we find programs that will work for our issues in our community and then how do we successfully adopt them?”Diffusion of innovation and widespread implementation.
What is the focus of research to practice models?
Focus on the desire of researchers and policymakers to “push” communities and organizations to adopt evidenced-based programs
based on idea that no disease has ever been eradicated through the treatment of its victims, but rather through the prevention of new occurrences
public health model
Directed toward individual people who are considered at high risk for developing disorder in the future, especially if they show early symptoms of the disorderDo not meet the criteria for full-fledged diagnosis of mental disorder
Indicated Preventive Measures
Designed for people at above-average risk for developing behavioral or emotional disorders
-These risk characteristics are associated with the development of particular disorders but are not the symptoms of the disorder itself
Selective Preventive Measures
Interventions designed to be offered to everyone in a given population groupTypically administered to populations that are not in distress
Universal Preventive Measures
Culture is often expressed in what adults seek to transmit to children through family socialization practices and formal schooling
What differences does Cultural Diversity refer most specifically to?