PSY 201 Ch 5 Set A: Perception

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nisab44
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268974
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PSY 201 Ch 5 Set A: Perception
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2014-04-02 16:43:36
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psychology
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exam 3
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  1. psychophysics
    concerned with measuring perception; present people with a stimulus, ask them to report their perceptions; How much stimulation for detection?; need to look at thresholds
  2. thresholds
    a boundary or level; stimulation must reach a certain level to cross the threshold; two types: absolute and difference
  3. absolute threshold
    it's the minimum amount of energy (stimulation) that can be detected 50% of the time; how strong does a stimulus have to be for it to be perceived?: not very strong
  4. subliminal stimulation
    some stimuli below absolute threshold; stimulus is too weak or too brief for us to notice
  5. supraliminal stimulation
    some stimuli are above the absolute threshold; stimuli are consistently detected or perceived
  6. subliminal stimuli: can subliminal influence your behavior?
    research by James Vicary (1957) on subliminal suggestion; can have temporary impact on judgement and emotion, no major changes; persuasive stimuli above the perceptual threshold are far more influential
  7. difference threshold
    the smallest difference between the stimuli that can be detectd 50% of the time; Just Noticeable Difference (JND)
  8. Weber's Law
    Ernest Weber discovered that the smallest detectable difference in stimulus energy is a constant fraction of the intensity of the stimulus can determine the JND
  9. Need 2 things to determine JND
    intensity (amount of stimulation) and sense stimulated; JND = K x I, where K = constant for a sense, and I = stimulus intensity; difference threshold is directly proportional to the magnitude of the stimulus with which the comparison is being made
  10. Fechner's Law
    the stronger the stimulus or greater the magnitude of the stimulus, the bigger the change needed for a difference in stimulus intensity to be noticeable; Gustav Fechner used Weber's Law to study relationship between the physical magnitude of a stimulation and its perceived magnitude
  11. perception
    studied by Gestalt psychology (the whole is more than the sum of its parts
  12. perceptual organization
    to make sense out of the things you see; must impose some sort of organization; talk performed by the perceptual system to determine what goes on
  13. figure ground
    we organize stimuli into a central or foreground figure and a background; part of the visual field that has meaning stands in front of the rest
  14. grouping
    we put things together into groups; proximity, similarity, continuity, and closure
  15. proximity
    closer objects or events are to one another; group based on physical closeness; perceived as belonging together
  16. similarity
    similar elements look alike; group based on common feature
  17. continuity
    create a continuous form, continuous pattern
  18. closure
    fill in missing contours to form a complete object
  19. perceptual set
    a readiness to perceive stimuli in a particular way; expectation, culture or experience can influence your perceptions; can impact a person's perception of an object
  20. perceptual constancies
    allow us to recognize familiar stimuli under varying conditions; experience a stable perception even though sensory input is continually changing; see things as same even though they appear to be changing
  21. size constancy
    changes in size of a retinal image; interpreted as changes in distance not changes in actual size
  22. shape constancy
    the perceived shape of an object remains the same, even when seen at different angles; watching a  revolving door
  23. brightness/color constancy
    brightness or color of object remains the same under different conditions of illumination; object seen as bright or same color regardless of lighting conditions

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