PSY 201 Ch 5 Set B: Depth Perception - Perceptual Illusions

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PSY 201 Ch 5 Set B: Depth Perception - Perceptual Illusions
2014-04-02 17:01:55

exam 3
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  1. depth perception
    distance between objects; how near or far away objects are; two types of cues: binocular and monocular cues
  2. binocular depth cues
    require the use of both eyes
  3. eye convergence
    produced by feedback from the muscles in your eyes; you eyes rotate inward to view a close object or project it onto the retina
  4. binocular disparity (retinal disparity)
    each eye sees a directly different image; slightly different viewing angle in each eye
  5. monocular depth cues
    cues about distance that require only one eye
  6. pictorial depth cures
    cues about distance that can be given in a flat picture; linear perspective, interposition, elevation, texture gradient, and relative size
  7. linear perspective
    the perception that parallel lines converge in the distance
  8. interposition
    objects closer to us may cut off part of our view of more distant objects
  9. elevation
    or height in plane; height in the horizontal plane
  10. texture gradient
    closer objects have greater detail
  11. relative size
    if two objects are of similar size, the one that looks smaller will be judged to be farther away
  12. non-pictorial cues
    motion parallax and ocular accommodation
  13. motion parallax
    if we are moving, nearby objects appear to move faster than faraway ones
  14. ocular (visual) accommodation
    changes in the ability of the lens to change its shape and bend light rays so that objects are in focus
  15. depth perception in infants
    it appears shortly after birth, but fear and avoidance of dangerous depth do not develop until an infant is old enough to crawl; used visual cliff to test; discovered social referencing: child looks at other people to judge what they should do
  16. perception of movement/motion
    sometimes size and shape aren't as important as whether an object is moving, how fast it's going, and where it's headed; 2 types of motion: real and apparent
  17. real motion
    physical displacement of an object from one position to another
  18. figure ground
    stimulus across different backgrounds
  19. looming
    involves a rapid expansion in the size of an image so that it fills the retina; you interpret the stimulus as approaching
  20. apparent motion
    perceive motion when there is none
  21. stroboscopic illusions (of motion)
    illusion of movement/motion created when we see slightly different images in rapid succession (motion pictures) or slightly displaced lights flashed in rapid succession (phi phenomenon); railroad crossing lights
  22. autokinetic illusion (of motion)
    the perceived motion created by a single stationary object; standing in a room that is absolutely dark and stare at a tiny spot of light; light will appear to move because no frame of reference; slight movement of the eye muscles
  23. perceptual illusions
    compelling but incorrect perceptions; stimulus contains misleading cues give rise to inaccuate perceptions; does not correspond to reality; a visual stimulus that "fools" the eye; Ex: ponzo illusion, ames room, muller-lyer
  24. ponzo illusion
    two lines the same when on converging lines (train tracks)
  25. ames room
    two people same height in room (boy looked taller than woman)
  26. muller-lyer
    two arrow looking lines the same length