Ecology exam I set II

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Ecology exam I set II
2014-04-03 00:29:10

exam I set II
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  1. reasons the estrogen mimicking chemicals have such a huge effect on many animals
    • fat-soluble
    • long half life
  2. downfalls of being a homeotherm
    • takes 10x more energy
    • have to eat 10x more then fish
  3. animals that are able to maintain consistent salt concentration regardless of salinity
  4. animals that adapt to whatever salinity they are in
  5. most viable resource in the desert
    H2O, desert tortoises fight till they make the other pee
  6. Neither created nor destroyed
    Law of Conservation of Matter
  7. Spectrum that gives off heat
    Infra Red
  8. glowing animals that gives off light
  9. provides the scientific understanding underlying environmental issues
  10. How is sunlight important to development and behavior of organisms sensitive to photoperiod
    intensity and quality affects photosynthesis
  11. How is wind a factor in species distribution
    • amplifies effects of temperature by increasing heat loss rom evaporation and convection
    • can change morphology of plants
  12. How is rocks and soil an important part of animal distribution
    • plants grow in it and animals feed on it
    • -physical structure
    • -pH
    • -Mineral composition
  13. what influences moisture on soil and rocks
    slope because of gravity and water
  14. pH on rocks and soil
    • limestone absorbs acid
    • lower pH=higher acidity
  15. example of pH affecting distribution
    • subbery Canada has a smoke stack
    • one part of lake is completely clear
    • other, with limestone is filled with life
  16. rocker layers
    soil horizons
  17. composition of sedimentation, decomposition
    soil profile
  18. four major abiotic components of climate
    • temperature
    • water
    • sunlight
    • wind
  19. marcoclimate consists of patterns on the
    • global
    • regional
    • local level
  20. microclimate consists of
    very fine patterns encountered by community of organisms
  21. what are global climate patterns determined by
    • solar energy
    • planets movement in space
  22. things coming alive after being dorment for 1000's of years
    resurrection ecology
  23. what do animals rely most on in regards to seasonal behavior
  24. two types of boundary layers
    • gas
    • liquid
  25. weathering that causes pot holes
    • Physical weathering
    • Ex:
    • frost wedging
    • expansion of H20
  26. weathering that erodes marble statues
    • chemical weathering
    • because of acid rain
  27. distribution of plants in desert
    • uniform
    • to compete for water
  28. place where CO2 is measured
    • Mona Loa mountain
    • high up, middle of ocean
  29. CO2 change from 30 years ago
    • increase CO2 by 300 ppm
    • is now 400 ppm
  30. Galileo's  model
    planets rotate around sun
  31. Catholic model of sun rotates around earth
  32. light and temperature increase steadily toward the poles
    • seasonal variations
    • at equator sun set and sunrise very sudden
    • In Alaska sunset/rise change daily
  33. global air circulation and wind patterns
    • Hadley cells
    • plays a part in determining climate patterns
  34. zone of transition from one biome to another
    habitat transition
    • ecotone
    • high diversity of animals
  35. amount of types of species at a specific location
    species richness
  36. how many species of each at a given location
    species evenness
  37. all the organisms that are part of the individuals environment are collectively called
  38. sounds wave tracker used to record when an animal swims by in the water
    ducane signaler
  39. equipment that records temperature every minute
    data loggers
  40. device that signals if SUR has any data
  41. levels of animal concern
    • endangered
    • threatened
    • species of special concern
  42. same temperature in body of water
  43. why are Killarney lakes the clearest in North America?
    zebra muscles are filter feeders, ate all the nutrients, aquatic plants died
  44. term for limestone
    bettering substrates
  45. biome with broad leaved evergreen trees
    tropical rain forest
  46. 2 measurements of species diversities
    • species richness
    • species evenness
  47. 8 major terrestrial biomes
    • tropical forest
    • desert
    • savanna
    • chaparral
    • temperate grassland
    • coniferous forest
    • temperate broadleaf forest
    • tundra
  48. ecological problems in a tropical rain forest
    • competition for light
    • few nutrients in soil
  49. benefits for vines in tropical rain forest
    • up higher for light
    • don't have to support themselves
  50. why is there more nutrients in the soil up north
    leaves fall to the ground
  51. spreading out of trees and plants
  52. trees/plants grow on top of each other
  53. where is the greatest animal diversity on planet
    tropical rain forest
  54. location of deserts
    30 degree latitudes
  55. temperature range of deserts
    -30 to 50 C
  56. terrestrial biome that has high evaporation and scattered plants
    very low NPP
  57. NPP
    • net primary productivity
    • mass/area/time
  58. whats the advantage to living underground and being nocturnal in the desert
    cool and moist
  59. animals that make their own water
    • metabolic water
    • oxidize Hydrogen with O2
  60. how to plants reduce surface area
  61. plant in desert with no leaves
  62. disadvantage of small animals in desert
    more surface area to volume ratio
  63. forgetting what the environment use to be like
    • environmental amnesia
    • zebras and leatherback turtle abundance
  64. seeds that are only germinated with a fire happens
    fire adapted
  65. where is the savanna located
    between equatorial and 30 lat
  66. types of animals in savanna
    migratory, large herbivores
  67. type of land in savanna
    grassland with scattered trees
  68. A state that is a good example of chaparral
  69. what causes mudslides in the chaparral biome
    fires burn plant roots, rain comes, nothing to hold soil in place
  70. where is chaparral terrestrial biome located
    between 30 and 60
  71. different names for Temperate grasslands in different countries
    • NA-plains and prairies
    • Russia- steppes
    • Argentina- pampas
  72. location of temperate grasslands
    between 30 and 60
  73. plant that's not grass nor wooden
  74. forbes are located in which terrestrial biome
    temperate grassland
  75. differences between chaparral and temperate grassland
    temperate grassland is moist and is a grazing prime agriculture area
  76. what kind of plants dominate the chaparral biome
  77. what kind of plants dominate the temperate grasslands
    grass and forbes
  78. largest terrestrial biome on earth
    coniferous forest
  79. where is the coniferous forest located
    60 N lat
  80. type of plant that dominates coniferous forest biome
  81. biome with many migratory birds
    coniferous forest
  82. tree shapes in the coniferous forest biome
    conical sloped, helps with snow load
  83. what kills the spruce
  84. where is the temperate deciduous forest biomes located
    30 and 60 lat
  85. what type of trees dominate the temperate deciduous forest biome
    deciduous trees
  86. what biome are migrants and hibernators located
    animals adapted to seasonal hibernate or brumate
    temperate deciduous forest
  87. areas of land that never thaw out
    • permafrost
    • tundra
  88. where is the tundra biome located
    60+ lat
  89. biome with migratory or cold tolerant animals
  90. length of growing season in tundra
    less then 2 months
  91. trees that have fallen and have other trees grow on top of it
    nurse logs
  92. line of trees on nurse log
  93. how much rain does the temperate rain forest get a year
    30 to 150 inches
  94. types of vegetation in temperate rain forest
    • lichens
    • mosses
    • tall conifers
    • -redwoods
    • -Sitka spruce
  95. what aquatic environment has the highest level of productivity on the planet
  96. where is the lowest NPP
    ocean bc of area
  97. what influences the structure and dynamics of aquatic biomes
    abiotic and biotic
  98. major ecological associations that occupy broad geographic regions of land or water
  99. why can't we breath H2O?
    too dense, start pulling it in it wouldn't stop
  100. how do fishs gills get oxygen from dense H2O?
    they pull it right through and exit out the back
  101. how do fish not cave in from H2O density/pressure
    swim bladders creates neutral buoyancy
  102. percentage oceans covers of the earths surface
  103. oceans have an enormous impact on
  104. this biome accounts for the largest part of the biosphere in terms of area
  105. how do sharks stay afloat in dense H2O?
    fat in liver helps maintain buoyancy
  106. salt concentration in marine water
    3%, same as saline solution aka human fluid
  107. which direction do geyers go above the equator?
  108. percentage of freshwater on earths surface
  109. transition between ocean and river
  110. how is environment becoming like soda?
    • CO2+H2O=lower pH=higher acid in ocean
    • Calcium carbonate destroys animals shells
  111. difference between marine and aquatic
    • marine is salty
    • aquatic is fresh
  112. what factors are aquatic biomes stratified zones or layers defined by?
    • light penetration
    • temperature
    • depth
  113. 2 aquatic biome zones discussed in class
    littoral and limnetic
  114. aquatic biome zone that has enough light compensation level for plants to survive
    limnetic zone
  115. ground of aquatic biome zone that is in the limnetic zone
    littoral zone
  116. location where water from rivers drains into
    • water shed
    • biggest one in US is Mississippi
  117. piece of land between Chesapeake Bay and Delaware Bay
  118. enough light for photosynthesis
    light compensation level