Chap 7,20 and EssayQs

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  1. Beginning with glycolysis, name the 4 steps of aerobic catabolism. Include intake, outcomes, type of phosphorylation.
    • 1. Glycolysis. Uses 2 ATP to break down glucos into 2 Pyruvate. In process 2NAD+ turns to 2NADH and 4ATP are synthesized (net2ATP)
    • 2.Intermediate step. Two Pyruvate from glycolysis are decarboxylated into 2 acetyl groups(2 carbon cmpds). Its paired with a Coenzyme A and becomes Acetyl CoA. No phosphorylation. 
    • 3.Krebs/Citric Acid. Acetyl CoA enters the kreb cycle which is mainly to create energy rich e- carriers for future ATP. ADP -> ATP, 3NAD+ ->3NADH, 1FADH ->1FADH2. Substrate
    • 4.ETC. All energy rich e- carriers from krebs donated electrons to pass through the ETC. a proton gradient is created and activats the flow of H+ ion through ATP synthase Creating ATP  from ADP. O2 REQUIRED/FEA. Oxidative.
  2. Describe the normal sequence of events involved in the mechanism of enzymatic action
    • 1.The substrate contacts a specific region of the surface of the enzyme, called the active site.
    • 2.A temporary intermediate cmpd forms called an enzyme-substrate complex. 
    • 3.The substrate molecule is transformed by the rearrangement of existing atoms,
    • the breakdown of the substrate molecule, OR in combination with another substrate.
    • 4. The transformed substrate molecules are released from enzyme because they no longer fit the active site. The unchanged enzyme is now free to react with other substrates

  3. List four factors that influence enzymatic activity. Briefly explain how each factor effects performance.
    • Temperature: Enzymes usually catalyze at higher temps. If the temp gets too high, its starts to denature proteins, tertiary structure, and loses its catalytic ability.
    • pH: Similar to temp. Its changes its tertiary structure, and eventually denatures proteins.
    • [Substrate]: Higher the substrate concentration the higher the catalytic activity. Once enzyme hits saturation, higher activity cannot be achieved. 
    • Inhibitors: Non competitive and competitive. These either block or change the shape of active site to prevent substrate from attaching
  4. 3 modes of action by which microbial control methods work to kill bacteria.
    • Moist heat: Coagulates/Denatures proteins
    • Autoclave:15 PSI Pressurized steam to kill all bacteria(except prions)
    • Pasteurization: Heating something to a certain temperature. High-temperature short-time heating. ultra-high-temperature treatments(used to store milk w/out fridge& Dry milk)
  5. The 7 classes of chemicals
    • Heavy Metals: Enzyme inhibition/Denatures
    • Alcohol: Disrupt/Denature/Dissolve lipids
    • Aldehydes(formaldehyde|Sterilizes):Denatures
    • Phenols(Carbolic Acid): Disrupt membrane/Denatures
    • Detergents: Disrupt membrane/enzyme inhibitions
    • Ethylene oxide (Sterilizes): Destroys enxymes and proteins 
    • Halogens
  6. Bactericidal
    Kills microbes directly
  7. Bacteriostatic
    Inhibits microbes from growing
  8. Broad Spectrum
    • Kills or inhibits a wide variety of bacteria 
    • Both gram (-)(+)
    • Could be dangerous
  9. Narrow Spectrum
    Kills or inhibits only specific types of bacteria
  10. Superinfection
    An infection following a previous infection. usually by microorganisms that have became resistant to the anti-biotics
  11. Selective toxicity
    The property of some antimicrobial agents to be toxic to a microorganism and less/non-toxic to the host. 

    Side effects 
  12. Antibiotic
    An antimicrobial agent, usually produced by a bacterium or fungus
  13. Chemotherapy
    Treatment of disease with chemical substances.
  14. Plasma
    • Free radicals that destroy microbes
    • used in tubular instruments 
    • Sterilizes
  15. Supercritical Fluids
    • Used to clean donated body parts 
    • CO2 with gaseous and liquid properties 
    • Used on medical instruments
  16. Peroxygens
    • Oxidizing agents 
    • Used on contaminated surfaces 
    • O3
  17. Protozoans
    • Literally means first animal
    • Not animal, but contain animal like qualities
    • Eukaryotic
    • Heterotrophs
    • Some form cysts to protect themselves(2nd stage of life). Cyst also allows for host transfer
  18. Photolase
    Enzyme that does light repair; direct repair of DNA without removal
  19. Transcription
    DNA -> RNA
  20. Translations
    RNA -> Proteins
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Chap 7,20 and EssayQs
2014-04-03 09:21:55
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