Respiratory system part 2

Card Set Information

Author:
cathwilliams
ID:
269066
Filename:
Respiratory system part 2
Updated:
2014-04-03 11:15:41
Tags:
B2
Folders:
Biology
Description:
Second revision set on respiratory system
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  1. Label the lining of the lungs




  2. How do the lungs protect us

    • Produces sticky mucus
    • Traps dust and bacteria
    • Delicate hairs called CILIA, move constantly shifting the mucus to the top of the trachea where it is swallowed



  3. What is the effect of smoking on the lung?

    • Smoke contains TAR
    • this paralyses the cilia
    • Mucus is now trapped in the lung
    • This causes irritation damaging the lung
    • Increases risk of lung disease
    • Bacteria reproduce increasing in number in the mucus
    • Cause infection e.g. Chronic bronchitis



  4. What is lung cancer?

    • Disease that is difficult to treat and often causes death
    • Tumors grow in the lungs that can spread to other parts of the body by the blood



  5. What is emphysema?

    • Inflammation and scarring of the lung and damage t the alveoli
    • Persistent cough and difficulty breathing



  6. (QWC) How does smoking cause disease?

    • Tobacco smoke contains carcinogens causing cancer
    • Smoke damages cilia paralysing them and killing them
    • Lungs become clogged, irritated by the particles in the mucus
    • Causes emphysema
    • Tar clogs the lungs makes it difficult to breathe causing emphysema



  7. How has science linked smoking and disease?

    • Smoking harmful to smokers and  people who are close to smokers (passive smoking)
    • Evidence is disputed by the tobacco industry (bias)
    • But we have CONFIDENCE that the data is correct because:
    • Many studies have shown the same link - reproducible
    • Studies have been peer reviewed - other scientists have checked the results



  8. (QWC) How have attitudes to smoking changed?

    • Fewer people are smoking
    • People are now aware of the effects of passive smoking
    • Smoking ban in public places
    • Cigarette packets carry health warnings
    • Age limit to buy cigarettes increased from 16 to 18
    • Support groups and products available to stop smoking
    • Pregnant women now rarely smoke as they are aware of the damage it causes to babies



  9.            How do we test expired air for CO2?

    • Lime water turns from clear to cloudy
    •  

  10. What will we observe when we filter cigarette smoke?


    • Cotton wool turned Brown - Tar left behind as smoke passes through it, this causes emphysema and cancers
    • Universal indicator turns yellow - gases are acidic, causes damage to the delicate lung lining
    • Temperature in the syringe increases - gasses are hot and will burn the skin causing renewal and increased change of cancer

  11. Describe the data for smoking and lung cancer


    • Cigarette consumption increases from 900 per person per year in 1900 to 4000 per person per year in 1980
    • Lung cancer deaths begin approx 20 years later in 1920
    • Deaths from lung cancer increased from 500 deaths per 100000 people in 1920 to over 4000 deaths per 100000 people in 1980

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