Respiratory system part 2
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Label the lining of the lungs
How do the lungs protect us
- Produces sticky mucus
- Traps dust and bacteria
- Delicate hairs called CILIA, move constantly shifting the mucus to the top of the trachea where it is swallowed
What is the effect of smoking on the lung?
- Smoke contains TAR
- this paralyses the cilia
- Mucus is now trapped in the lung
- This causes irritation damaging the lung
- Increases risk of lung disease
- Bacteria reproduce increasing in number in the mucus
- Cause infection e.g. Chronic bronchitis
What is lung cancer?
- Disease that is difficult to treat and often causes death
- Tumors grow in the lungs that can spread to other parts of the body by the blood
What is emphysema?
- Inflammation and scarring of the lung and damage t the alveoli
- Persistent cough and difficulty breathing
(QWC) How does smoking cause disease?
- Tobacco smoke contains carcinogens causing cancer
- Smoke damages cilia paralysing them and killing them
- Lungs become clogged, irritated by the particles in the mucus
- Causes emphysema
- Tar clogs the lungs makes it difficult to breathe causing emphysema
How has science linked smoking and disease?
- Smoking harmful to smokers and people who are close to smokers (passive smoking)
- Evidence is disputed by the tobacco industry (bias)
- But we have CONFIDENCE that the data is correct because:
- Many studies have shown the same link - reproducible
- Studies have been peer reviewed - other scientists have checked the results
(QWC) How have attitudes to smoking changed?
- Fewer people are smoking
- People are now aware of the effects of passive smoking
- Smoking ban in public places
- Cigarette packets carry health warnings
- Age limit to buy cigarettes increased from 16 to 18
- Support groups and products available to stop smoking
- Pregnant women now rarely smoke as they are aware of the damage it causes to babies
How do we test expired air for CO2?
- Lime water turns from clear to cloudy
What will we observe when we filter cigarette smoke?
- Cotton wool turned Brown - Tar left behind as smoke passes through it, this causes emphysema and cancers
- Universal indicator turns yellow - gases are acidic, causes damage to the delicate lung lining
- Temperature in the syringe increases - gasses are hot and will burn the skin causing renewal and increased change of cancer
Describe the data for smoking and lung cancer
- Cigarette consumption increases from 900 per person per year in 1900 to 4000 per person per year in 1980
- Lung cancer deaths begin approx 20 years later in 1920
- Deaths from lung cancer increased from 500 deaths per 100000 people in 1920 to over 4000 deaths per 100000 people in 1980
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