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Does the muscular and skeletal system work together?
When does a great deal of the skeletal growth occur?
between the 4th and 8th week of fetal life
Locomotion develops gradually in an oderly manner
What do the skeletal and muscular system help do?
help support the body and provide movement
Assessment of the musculoskeletal system includes?
- -observation of gait and muscle tone
- -gait assessment in children who can walk
If children do not walk by this age they should be referred to a physician
A child should be able to hop on one foot and arm swings occur
gait and arm swing is similar to an adult at what age?
What is the nurses role?
to reassure parents that unless there is pain or a problem with motor or nerve function, many minor abnormal appearing alignments will spontaneously resolve with activity
What to observe about muscle tone?
assess symmetry of movement and strength and contour of body and extremeties
Neurological exam includes an assessment of reflexes, a sensory assessment of reflexes, a sensory assessment, and the presence or absence of spasms
Diagnostic tests include?
- radiograph studies include:
- bone scans
- CT scans
- MRI scans
Laboratory tests include?
- these may help rule out septic arthritis or osteomyelitis
human leukocyte antigen (HLA) B-27
may help diagnose rheumatological disorders
Treatments for musculoskeletal System
- bone biopsy
What is the method used for soft tissue injury?
RICE (rest, ice, compression,elevation)
Soft tissue injuries include?
a break in the bone which is mainly caused by an accident
signs and symptoms of a fracture are?
- pain, tenderness on movement, and swelling
- discoloration, limited movement, and numbness may also occur
This heals stronger in children thicker and less stiffness upon mobilization
- used for young children who have had a fractured femur
- buttock is slightly off the bed to fascilitate countertraction
- active infants may require a restraint to maintain body alignment
- skin traction used in fractures of femur, hip, and knee
- extension force is applied to hip and leg
- counter traction is supplied to the childs body
- child must be pulled up in the bed
- bed should not be placed in high fowlers position
- used yo reduce pain
Russells Skin Traction
- sling under the knee , which suspends the distal thigh above the bed
- pulls in two directions
- prevents posterior subluxation of the tibia on the femur
- two sets of weights, one at the head and one at the foot of bed
Some safety alerts for weights would be?
- weights hang freely
- weights are out of childrens reach
- ropes on pulleys
- knots are not resting against pulleys
- bed linens are not on traction ropes
- counter traction is in place
- apparatus does not touch the foot of the bed
Continued safety alerts for weights.
- antiembolism stockings
- neurovascular checks
- skin integrity
- pain relieved by medication is noted
- measures to prevent constipation
- trapeze for position change
When performing a neurovascular check you will do the following?
- peripheral pulse rate and quality
- color of extremity
- capillary refill time
- movement and sensation
What does a child have a high risk for when wearing a cast?
- impaired skin integrity
- and compartment syndrome
an infection that occurs in children younger than 1 and ages 5-14
A home remedy used for bowel activity?
hot prune juice
These bones in children contain few phagocytic cells to fight bacteria that may come to the bone from another part of the body.
This body part may require a window in the cast for distention?
Inflammation is a exudate that collects under the what?
marrow and cortex of the bone