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What did beck try to apply to psychoanalytic training?
A science element to it
What institution did beck find?
Beck institute for cognitive therapy and research
3 facts about his upbringing
-family loses with depressed mother'
-sickly child and initial poor self esteem with education
-went to med school
Roots of cognitive therapy) 5 people that contributed to cognitive therapy
- -Greek and roman philosophers
- -Albert ellis
- *had a different approach
Roots of cognitive therapy) How did George Kelly think about cognitive therapy
Beliefs can change thoughts, emotions, and actions
what are the 4 types of cognitions
Types of cognitions) automatic thoughts
Stream of cognitions
Types of cognitions) intermediate beleifs
Extreme or absolute rules and attitudes that shape thoughts
Types of cognitions) core beliefs
Types of cognitions) schema
Rules and expectations to process experiences
What is the cognitive triad? (2)
-it is a model that is usually used with depressed people.
-Cognitive triad has 3 components: one's view of the world, oneself, and the future
Cognitive model of depression) what is the first step on this tree
Cognitive model of depression) what comes after early experience?
Schemas or core beleifs
Cognitive model of depression) what comes after schemas or core beliefs?
- Dysfunctional assumptions
- *if then.. should etch.
Cognitive model of depression) what comes after dysfunctional assumptions?
Cognitive model of depression) what comes after critical incident?
Cognitive model of depression) what comes after assumption activated?
Negative automatic thoughts
Cognitive model of depression) what 4 things branch off from negative automatic thoughts?
Purpose of therapy) 2
Identify, evaluate, and modify dysfunctional thoughts and beliefs
-identify the multiple causes of cognitive distortions
What are distortions?
9 steps of treatment using CBT
- 1. goals
- 2.therapeutic alliance
- 3. Case formulation
- 4. Eliciting and rating cognitions
- 5. Determining the validity of cognitions
- 6. Labeling the distortion
- 7. Assessment of mood
- 8. Changing cognitions
- 9. Termination and relapse prevention
Changing cognitions) Activity scheduling
Encourages people to plan and try out new behaviors and ways of thinking as well as to remain active despite feelings of sadness or apprehension
Changing cognitions) mental and emotional imagery
- people envision and try out new ways of thinking and feeling
- *they can imagine themselves coping successfully
Changing cognitions) cognitive rehearsal
- a strategy in which people mentally rehearse a new behavior and then create a
- cognitive model of themselves successfully performing that behavior
Changing cognitions) thought stopping
- is useful when people have difficulty ridding themselves of persistent harmful
- *has shown to reduce anxiety.
Changing cognitions) Self talk/affirmation
- in which people repeat to themselves many times a day something positive
- *pep talk
Changing cognitions) diaries
- tabs on events that's been going on in one's life can help increase te
- awareness of what they do
- *nice way to track progression or difficultites
Changing cognitions) letter writing
- is another venue that can be used to explore and express one's thoughts and
Changing cognitions) systematic assessment of alternatives
- approach that can help people makes wise decisions or choices
- *write out the statements or options then rate from 1-10
Changing cognitions) relabeling or reframing
- or perceptions can help people think differently about them
- *a person that still hasn't had sex, can think of himself as a late bloomer
Changing cognitions) rational emotive role play
- play the emotional part of the mind while clinicians play the rational part
Changing cognitions) distancing
Involves projecting into the future to put a problem in perspective and diminish its importance
Changing cognitions) bibliotherapy
- about other people who have coped well with experiences similar to the clients
- can help the person think in a more optimistic way
Changing cognitions) guided task assignments
- acitivites that clients complete between sessions
- *they should start off easy then gradually get more difficult.
Cognitive triad ERP graph on the slide- explain
The more a person thought about the feared situation the less anxiety he felt about it
Creating assignments) collaboration
- Clients and clinicians should collaborate to determine assignments
- *clients should have the right to reject and shape their own assignments
Creating assignments) relating assignments to sessions
Clinicians should clarify for clients the rationale behind each assignment
Creating assignments) making assignments specific
Assignments should be specific so that people know exactly when and how to complete them
Creating assignments) ease of accomplishment
- Assignments should be fairly easy to accomplish
- *they should eventually start to get more difficult over time
Creating assignments) practicing tasks in the session
Clinicians can increase the likelihood of clients completing suggested tasks by starting or practicing a task in the session before asking people to complete tasks on their own.
Creating assignments) addressing possible barriers
Clinicians should address possible barriers to accomplishment of assignments as well as negative outcomes to prevent them from interfering with treatment.
Creating assignments) minimizing excuses
Clinicians also should plan assignments so that they minimize the likelihood of excuses
Creating assignments) addressing clients reactions
- Clinicians should address clients' reactions to the concept of homework assignments
- *tell them that the clinician will not judge their work
Creating assignments) offering options
For people who are beginning treatment or who May be apprehensive about completing assignments, offering options can be helpful.
Creating assignments) writing down assignments
Task assignments should be written down by either the client or the clinician in a place where the client can easily locate them.
(labeling the distortions) mind reading
You assume you know what other people think without having sufficient evidence of their thoughts
(labeling the distortions) fortune telling
You view your future through a fast forward button and predict that something undesirable will occur
(labeling the distortions) catastrophising
Here you believe either what has happened or is going to happen is so awful that you will not be able to cope with it
(labeling the distortions) labeling
You insult yourself or others
(labeling the distortions) discounting the positives
- You play down or exclude the positive aspects of what they have done
- *success= lucky
(labeling the distortions) mental filter (2)
-use negative filter, we filter out all the positives and pay more attention to negatives
(labeling the distortions) overgeneralization
You think the overall pattern of your life will be similar or identical to a single incident
(labeling the distortions) all or noting thinking (2)
- -dichotomous thinkiing
- *black or white
- -thinking in extremes and distorts perspective of your reality
- *loved or hated
(labeling the distortions) should statements
Tend to focus on how you expect things to be for either yourself or other people rather than focusing on what actually is
(labeling the distortions) personalization
You blame yourself for negative events and think that you are personally to blame
(labeling the distortions) blaming
- You locate the responsibility for negative events outside yourself and onto other people
- *you tend to see yourself as the victim
Labeling the distortions) unfair comparisons
You may compare yourself to others in an unrealistic way
Labeling the distortions) regret orientation
- You tend to focus on the past and what has happened to you particularly less desirable events rather than focusing on what you can do in the here and now
- *keeps you tied up to the past
Labeling the distortions) "what if" thinking
- You are constantly thinking about what negative things might happen in the future
- *similar to catastrophisation except you think about all the possible outcomes that might happen in the future
Labeling the distortions) emotional reasoning
- You allow how you feel to guide how you see the world thereby reinforcing the feelings
- *If you feel guilty then you must have done something wrong
- *if you feel anxious then you must be in danger
Labeling the distortions) thought fusion (2)
- -You have the inability to disconfirm a negative thought
- *you believe that once you have a thought it must be true and therefore reject any other contradictory evidence
Labeling the distortions) judgement focus
You are constantly looking at your own and others action in terms of its value (good or bad, superior, inferior) rather than describing the behavior and consequences of that behavior
Labeling the distortions) magnification and minimization
- You focus in on specific events and allow these to color your view of the world
- *ex) say you are in a social situation, if you made a slight error, that slight error will overtake everything that had occurred, so you are magnifying
Labeling the distortions) tunnel vision
- With tunnel vision you focus in on an event, action, or thought in past, present, or future and exclude everything else
- *say you were wronged at some point in life, you only focus on that and ignore everything else that has occurred.