304: light therapy

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304: light therapy
2014-05-04 15:59:39
304 modalities

light therapy
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  1. list (6) different names for laser therapy
    • phototherapy
    • laster therapy
    • low level laser therapy
    • cold laser
    • photobiomodulation therapy
    • infrared therapy
  2. what are the peak wavelength of the following colors according to the electromagnetic scale:

    • blue: 470 nm
    • red: 645 nm
    • infrared: 800 nm
  3. what are the (9) indications for using light therapy:
    • wound healing
    • tissue repair
    • prevention of tissue death
    • decrease inflammation
    • pain
    • edema
    • acute injuries
    • chronic injuries
    • neurological pain
  4. the word 'laser' is the nomnic for:
    Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation
  5. describe the depth of penetration for the following electromagnetic modalities:

    ultraviolet light:
    visible light:
    infrared light:
    • ultraviolet light: superficial heating
    • visible light: medium depth
    • infrared light: deep heating
  6. list and describe the (3) characteristics of laser therapy:
    • monochromatic: single color of a specific wavelength
    • collimated: stays in a cylindrical fashion
    • coherent: uniform waves; all in sync
  7. who came up with the idea of making a powerful light amplifier:
  8. who produced the 1st monochromatic (single color) light in 1960:
    Theodore maiman

    produced a red light utilizing light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation (laser)
  9. who was the 1st person in 1960 to attempt to experiment with high power lasers to destroy tumors:
    Edward mester
  10. what year was light therapy cleared by the FDA for therapeutic use:
  11. light behaves like a wave and has a stream of particles called:

    works on mitochondria... more ATP = more work, more phagocytosis, more proliferative

    better healing environment for cells to do their job
  12. a stream of particles that gyrates at unique frequency is:
    a photon

    • has both electrical and magnetic properties
    • visible and nonvisible spectrum
  13. variation in waves lead to varying physical responses- thus varying research.

    which two wavelengths (or colors) are thought to have therapeutic properties on biological tissues:
    red and near infrared
  14. what is the difference between high powered lasers and therapeutic lasers (cold):
    • high powered lasers:
    • used to create thermal changes
    • used for surgery primarily

    • therapeutic lasers (cold):
    • use less power
    • cause photochemical changes in the body
  15. describe the following of therapeutic lasers (cold):

    direct effect:
    indirect effect:
    • direct effect: absorption of photons
    • indirect effect: chemical evens that are caused by interaction of photons from the laser and the tissues (a cascade of events as a result of the absorption)
  16. what is the laser classification that is found in AT/PT rooms for therapeutic use: (class)

    what is the power for this class:

    what are the effects of this class: (4)
    • class: 3B
    • power: <500 mW

    • effects:
    • used for therapy
    • permanent eye damage
    • reflection from skin is safe
    • may cause minor skin burns
  17. light at 600-1200 nm optimizes tissue penetration of: (in general)
    1 mm - 4 cm
  18. longer wavelengths (relates to the color of the light) and lower frequencies have deeper penetration, so describe the following of near infrared:

    depth of penetration:
    • wavelength:
    • longest, longer than red and blue
    • 700-1100 nm

    • frequency: 1012-1014 cycles/sec
    • depth of penetration: 30-40 mm (3-4 cm)
  19. longer wavelengths (relates to the color of the light) and lower frequencies have deeper penetration, so describe the following of red:

    depth of penetration:
    • wavelength:
    • longer than blue, shorter than infrared
    • 600-700 nm

    • frequency: slightly higher than 1014
    • depth of penetration: 5-10 mm (.5 - 1 cm)
  20. longer wavelengths (relates to the color of the light) and lower frequencies have deeper penetration, so describe the following of blue:

    depth of penetration:
    • wavelength:
    • shortest, shorter than red and infared
    • about 400 nm, or slightly higher

    frequency: closer to 1015 cycles/second (highest frequency)

    depth of penetration: less than red and infrared,  skin basically
  21. deeper effects of light therapy are thought to occur as a result of:
    chemical rxns
  22. list 2 reasons why we need to know wavelength:
    • wavelength to determines penetration
    • be able to stay consistent
  23. the light therapy units in the ATR use..

    which wavelength:
    • wavelength: 660 nm, red
    • diode: SLD
  24. what is the tx dosage of laser therapy based on:
    based on power per square area
  25. list the power and tx dosage for the following:

    acute conditions:
    chronic conditions:
    • acute: <10 J/cm2
    • chronic: <40 J/cm2

    • evidence base is lacking on tx intensity and durations
    • accumulation of total energy
    • 10 J under a single light head 5 cm2...... 5 J in one spot, 5 J in another spot
  26. energy (J) = Power (W) x Time (s)
    = energy density (J/cm2)
  27. absorbed photons inevitably interact with the molecules and cells of the tissues, and in particular their light absorbing components called:
  28. just as plants an synthesize needed life supporting chemicals from light energy, humans are also capable of transforming the energy of certain wavelengths into:

    red laser (632.2 nm) and red light (670 nm) have been shown to increase mitochondrial fxn and increase ATP up to 70%
  29. one way to determine if light is truly absorbed is to study the biological response of suspected chromophores as different wavelengths are tested, which chromophore is a light sensitive chromophore  responsive to light therapy:
    cytochrome c oxidase

    increased production and fxn

    light therapy may also mediate cellular and mitochondrial Ca++ uptake
  30. list (6) ways LLLT may mediate both symptoms and underlying inflammatory process of acute inflammation reduction:
    • stabilization of cellular membrane: Ca++, Na+, and K+ as well as proton gradient of mitochondria are influenced
    • increased cellular ATP production
    • acceleration of macrophage activity including fibroblast proliferation
    • vasodilation via:  prostaglandins, histamines, nitric oxide and serotonin facilitating repair and debris removal (indirect effects)
    • enhanced lymphocyte activation (phagocyctic activity)
    • increased angiogenesis
  31. list (4) ways the stabilization of the cellular membrane are influnence in response to LLLT during acute inflammation reduction:
    • Ca++
    • Na+
    • K+
    • proton gradient

    ... of mitochondria
  32. list the (4) chemical mediators that promote vasodilation in response to LLLT during the actue inflammation reduction:
    • prostaglandins
    • histamines
    • nitric oxide
    • serotonin

    (indirect effects)
  33. list (3) reasons why LLLT is used for acute inflammation reduction:
    • cumulative effect is an accelerated inflammatory phase
    • condenses inflammatory phase enables immediate use post injury
    • this minimized pain and severity
  34. list (9) ways in which LLLT utilizes enzymatic, chemical and physical interventions for pain reduction:
    • alter nerve conduction velocity
    • increased beta endorphins (endodgenious opiates)
    • blocked C fiber affernets
    • increase N.O. (nitric oxide) production (Neurotransmitter and vasodilator)
    • incrased nerve cell action potential ( injured -20mV to normal -70 mV)
    • nerve cell regeneration
    • decreased bradykinin ( causes pain stimulation at nerve site)
    • increased acetylcholine
    • ion channel normalization
  35. list (9) ways in which LLLT is thought ot improve open surface wounds as well as connective tissue injury:
    • enhanced leukocyte infiltration
    • incrased macrophage activity
    • increased meovascularization
    • increased fibroblast activity
    • early epithelialization (skin growth)
    • increased growth factor (hormone)
    • enhanced cell proliferation and differentiation
    • greater wound tensile strength
  36. photons being absorbed by the cell to create ATP synthesis is produced by what modality:
    light therapy
  37. the color of light on our machines that produce a wavelength of 680 nm is:
  38. when energy is "bent" as it passes thru an interface of biological tissue it is known as"
  39. LASER is a mnemonic for:
    light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation
  40. what type of light bulbs are used on the ATR light therapy machines:
    SLD supraluminous diode
  41. list (7) indications for the use of light therapy:
    • wound healing
    • fx healing
    • musculoskeletal pain
    • trigger points
    • inflammatory conditions
    • OA/RA (arthritis)
    • carpal tunnel
  42. list the (6) contraindications for the use of light therapy:
    • eyes
    • malignancy
    • thyroid gland
    • high intensity over hemorrhaging regions
    • active DVT or thrombophlebitis
    • reproductive organs
    • pregnancy
  43. list the (6) precautions for the use of light therapy:
    • epilepsy
    • within 6 months of radiation tx
    • epiphysis
    • medication that may increase sensitivity to light
    • infection
    • sympathetic ganglia, vagus nerve or chest area in cardiac pts.
  44. list the 2 diodes used in light therapy:
    • LED: light emitting diode
    • SLD: supraluminous diode