Cell Biology 213 exam III set I

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Cell Biology 213 exam III set I
2014-04-03 22:44:42
cell biology

exam III set I
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  1. what membrane-based process produces most of the cells ATP produced
    oxidative phosphorylation
  2. the two stages in oxidative phosphorylation
    • electron-transport chain
    • Chemiosmotic coupling
  3. site of oxidative phosphorylation
    inner mitochondrial membrane
  4. how pyruvate and fatty acids enter the mitochondrial intermembrane
    through porins
  5. target cells possess proteins called________ that recognize and respond specifically to signal molecule
  6. signal that is like a broadcast, throughout the whole body by secreting it into an animals bloodstream
  7. cell sthat produce hormones are called
    endocrine cells
  8. signal molecules that diffuse locally through the extracellular fluid, remain in heighborhood of secreting cell
    local mediators
  9. signaling that cancer cells sometimes use to survive and proliferate
    autocrine signaling
  10. when cells make direct contact through signal molecules lodged in the plasma membrane
    contact-dependent signaling
  11. The name of when a cell stops receiving signals it kills itself off
  12. Important category of signal molecules that pass through the plasma membrane
    steroid hormones
  13. four things that could happen with intracellular signaling pathways
    • 1. relay signal through cell
    • 2. amplify to evoke large response
    • 3. detect signals and integrate them
    • 4. distribute to many effector proteins, evokes complex response
  14. receipt of a signal causes them to toggle from an inactive to an active state
    molecular switches
  15. 2 classes of molecular switches
    • protein kinase/phosphatase
    • GTP-binding proteins
  16. the molecular switch class that covalently attaches a phosphate group onto the switch protein
    protein kinase
  17. the molecular switch class that takes the phosphate group off the switch protein
    protein phosphatase
  18. 2 main types of protein kinases operate in intracellular signaling pathways
    • serine/threonine kinases
    • tyrosine kinases
  19. 3 main classes of cell-surface receptors
    • ion-channel-coupled receptors
    • G-protein-coupled receptors
    • enzyme-coupled receptors
  20. receptor class that changes the permeability of plasma membrane to produce electrical current
    ion-channel-coupled receptors
  21. receptor that initiates signaling cascade
    G-protein-coupled receptors
  22. receptor class that activate a wide variety of signaling pathways in cell
    enzyme-coupled receptors
  23. what does the ion-channel-coupled receptors work on?
    • plasma membrane
    • -changes membrane potential
  24. what does G-protein-coupled receptors work on?
    enzyme or ion channel in plasma membrane
  25. what does enzyme-coupled receptors work on?
    enzyme inside cell, or act as an enzyme
  26. GPCRs
    G-protein-coupled receptors
  27. structure of GPCRs
    single polypeptide chain threaded across lipid bilayer 7 times
  28. where are ion-channel-coupled receptors located
    synapses in nervous system