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What is thinking?
Mental activity that goes on in the brain when a person is organizing and attempting to understand and or communicate information to others
What is metacognition?
Thinking about thinking
What are mental images?
Mental representations that stand for objects or event =s and have a picture-like quality
What are concepts?
Ideas that represent a class or category of objects, events, or activities.
What is problem solving and what are some of the ways in which we solve problems?
Process of cognition that occurs when a goal must be reached by thinking and behaving in certain ways
What is trial and error?
One possible solution after another is tried until a successful one is found
What is insight?
Sudden perception of a solution to a problem
What are heuristics?
An educated guess based on prior experiences that helps narrow down the possible solutions for a problem; also known as a “rule of thumb”
What are some of the heuristics we use?
- Representative: Assumption that any object (or person) sharing characteristics with the members of a particular category is also a member of this category
- Availability: Estimating the frequency or likelihood of an event based on how easy it is to recall relevant information from memory or how easy it is to think of related examples
What are some of the problem solving barriers?
- Functional fixedness: A block to problem solving that comes from thinking about objects in terms of only their typical functions
- Mental set: The tendency to persist in using a problem solving patterns that have worked for them in the past
- Confirmation bias: The tendency to search for evidence that fits one’s beliefs while ignoring any evidence that does not fit those beliefs
What is attention? Selective attention? How do we study attention?
Attention: The process that, at a given moment, enhances some information and inhibits other information
What is attention’s relationship to working memory? Auditory distractors? Visual distractors?
- Working memory: Attentional control
- Distractors: Visual and Auditory
What does the research tell us about multitasking?
- Texting and driving
- Put participants in a driving simulator and had them text or talk on the phone
- Participants were judged on:
- Maintaining an acceptable speed
- Had abrupt moments of acceleration and braking
- Did they sway in their lane
- Showed signs of distracted driving, especially lane veering
- Distracted driving continued 3.35 seconds after text was sent
What is language?
A system for combining symbols (such as words) so that an unlimited number of meaningful statements can be made for the purpose of communicating
What are some of theories of language?
- Linguistic relativity hypothesis: Thought processes and concepts are controlled by language
- Cognitive universalism: Concepts are universal and influence the development of language
How do psychologists define intelligence, and how do various theories of intelligence differ?
- General intelligence (g): the ability to reason and solve problems
- Sir Frances Galton (1822 – 1911) sought to develop measures of human intelligence. Believed that it could Measured in reflexes and muscle grip.
- Alfred Binet (1857 – 1911) – French psychologist interested in identifying children with mental retardation. Developed the first IQ test. Measured “mental age” and “physical age”.
How is intelligence measured and how are intelligence tests constructed?
- 12 tests
- Verbal Comprehension – Vocabulary, verbal reasoning, knowledge
- Working Memory –concentration, mental control of verbal information
- Perceptual Organization – spatial perception, problem solvingo Processing Speed – Visual perception speed,
What is intellectual disability and what are its causes?
Inability to process information as fast as others. IQ 70 and under considered disability. Injury or genetics.
What defines giftedness, and does being intellectually gifted guarantee success in life?
Those who have an IQ of 140+. Not necessarily, but there is a positive correlation between giftedness and success.
What is the influence of heredity and environment on the development of intelligence?
- As a child, genes influence about 45% of intelligence compare to an adults 75%.
- The family environment influences the child 30% and an adult 0%
- Non family environment influence the child and the adult 25%
What evidence is there for the reliability and validity of IQ tests?
IQ scores correlate with real world values, and are considered valid and reliable,
• What are some ways to improve thinking?
Pharmaceutical companies are spending massive resources on research and development of compound that can improve cognitive functioning.
How are IQ tests used clinically?
We can find whether people have specific mental disorders from their results on their IQ tests.
• How are IQ tests important for the death penalty?
We can determine whether the people are of mental disability