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What is social psychology?
Study of how ta person’s thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the real, imagined, or implied presence of others
What is social influence?
The process through which the real or implied presence of others can directly or indirectly influence the thoughts, feelings, and behavior of an individual
What are social norms?
The customary rules that govern behavior in groups and societies
What is conformity?
Changing one’s own behavior to match that of other people
What is groupthink?
Occurs when people place more importance on maintaining group cohesiveness than on assessing the facts of the problem with which the group is concerned
What is compliance and what are some ways to induce it?
Changing one’s behavior as a result of other people directing or asking for the change
What is obedience?
- Changing one’s behavior at the command of an authority figure
- Milgram study
- “teacher” administered what he or she thought were real shocks to a “Learner’
How to gain compliance?
- Foot-in-the-door technique: Asking for a small commitment and, after gaining compliance, asking for a bigger commitment
- Door-in-the-face technique: Asking for a large commitment and being refused, and asking for a smaller commitment
- Lowball technique: Getting a commitment from a person and then raising the cost of that commitment
- That’s-not-all technique: The persuader makes an offer and then adds something extra to make the offer look better before the target person can make a decision
- Group polarization: Members involved in a group discussion take a more extreme positions and suggest riskier actions than individuals who have not participated in a group discussion
What are social loafing and facilitation?
- Social facilitation: The presence of other people to have a positive impact on the performance of an easy task
- Social loafing: People put less effort into a task when working with others on that task
What are attitudes, what are their components, and how good at they at predicting behavior?
- o Attitude: The tendency to respond positively or negatively toward a certain person, object, idea, or situation
- Affective (emotional) component
- Behavioral component
- Cognitive component
- Attitudes are often poor predictors of behavior unless the attitude is very specific or very strong
How are attitudes formed?
- Direct contact with the person, situation, object, or idea
- Direct instruction from parents or others
- Interacting with other people who hold a certain attitude
- Vicarious conditioning: Watching the actions and reactions of others to idea, people, objects, and situation
What is persuasion?
- One person tries to change the belief, opinion, position, or course of action of another person through argument, pleading, or explanation
- Key elements: source of the message, he message itself, and the target audience
What is cognitive dissonance?
- Sense of discomfort or distress that occurs when a person’s behavior does not correspond to that person’s impression
- Lessened by changing the conflicting behavior, changing he conflicting attitude, or forming a new attitude to justify he behavior
What are social cognition and impression formation?
- The mental processes that people use to make sense of the social world around themo Impression formation
- Forming of the first knowledge a person has about another person
- Primacy effect: The very first impression one has about a person tends to persist even in the face of evidence to the contrary
What does social categorization mean and how does it relate to stereotypes?
- Social categorization: The assignment of a person to a category based on characteristics the new person has in common with other people with whom one has had experience in the past.
- Stereotype: A set of characteristics that people believe is shared by all members of a particular social category
- Prejudice: Negative attitude held by a person about the members of a particular social group
- Discrimination: Treating people differently because of prejudice toward the social group to which they belong
What are attributions?
The process of explaining one’s own behavior and the behaviors of others
What is attribution theory?
- The theory of how people make attributions
- Situational cause: Attributed to external factors, such as delays, the action of others, or some other aspect of situation
- Dispositional cause: Attributed to internal factors such as personality or character
- Fundamental attribution error (actor-observer bias)
What are prejudice and discrimination and some of the theories as to why they exist?
Forms of prejudice include ageism, sexism\ racism, and prejudices against those are too fat or too thin.
What are in and out-groups
- In-group: Social groups with whom a person identifies; “us”
- Out-group: Social group with whom a person does not identify; “them”
What is realistic conflict theory?
Conflict between groups increases prejudice and discrimination
What is scapegoating?
Tendency to direct prejudice and discrimination at out-group members who have little social power or influence
What is social cognitive theory?
Views prejudice as an attitude acquired through direct instruction, modeling, and other social influences
What is social identity theory?
- The formation of a person’s identity within a particular social group is explained by social categorization, social identity, and social comparison
- Social identity: The part of the self-concept including one’s view of self as a member of a particular social category
- Social comparison: The comparisons of oneself to others in ways that raise one’s self-esteem
What is stereotype vulnerability?
The effect awareness of the stereotypes associated with their social group has on their behavior
What is a self fulfilling prophecy?
The tendency of one’s expectations to affect one’s behavior in such a way as to make the expectation more likely to occur
What is attraction and what is generally necessary for it to occur?
- Interpersonal attraction: Liking or having the desire for a relationship with another person
- Proximity: Physical or geographical nearness
- People like people who are similar to themselves OR who are different from themselves (complementary).
- Reciprocity of liking: Tendency of people to like other people who like them in return
What is love and what are the components according to Sternberg?
- A strong affection for another person due to kinship personal ties, sexual attraction, admiration, or common interests
- Three components
• What is aggression and what can impact it?
- Aggression: Behavior intended to hurt or destroy another
- Biology: Influences on aggression may include genetics, amygdala and limbic system, and testosterone and serotonin levels
- Social role: The pattern of behavior that is expected of a person who is in a particular social position• Violent TV, movies, and videos are related to aggression
What is prosocial behavior and altruism?
- Prosocial behavior: Socially desirable behavior that benefits others
- Altruism: Prosocial behavior that is done with no expectation of reward and may involve the risk of harm to oneself
What is Kin theory?
The more closely related someone is to us, the more likely we are to help them
What is the norm of reciprocity?
If someone does something for a person, that should do something for the other in return
What is the bystander effect and diffusion of responsibility?
- The effect the presence of others has on the decision to help or not help; help becomes less likely as the number of bystanders increases
- Diffusion of responsibility: A person fails to take responsibility for actions or for inaction because of the presence of other people who are seen to share the responsibility
- Five steps in making a decision to help Noticing
- Defining an emergency
- Take responsibility
- Planning a course of action
- Taking action