First Law of Thermodynamics: Law of Conservation of Energy
Energy cannot be created or destroyed, but it can be changed from one form to another.
Second Law of thermodynamics
Energy cannot be changed from one form to another without a loss of usable energy.
The relative amount of disorganization.
Converting solar energy into chemical energy of carbs.
CO2 + 6H2O = C6H12O + 6O2
Carbon Dioxide + Water = Glucose + Oxygen
Cellular Respiration Equation
6O2 + C6H12O6 = CO2 + 6H2O
Oxygen + Glucose = Carbon Dioxide + Water
An organism that carries on photosynthesis (self feeding).
Organisms that feed on other organisms (rely on outside nutrients).
Calvin Cycle Reactions
Light independent. (NADP+ links these reactions)
The study of the interactions of organisms with each other and their physical environment.
How are organisms adapted to their environment?
Levels of Ecological Organization
Individual --> Population --> Community --> Ecosystem --> Biosphere
Species distribution throughout the environment.
Goal of Modern Ecology
Describe and develop testable hypothesis and models that explain and predict the distribution and abundance of populations and species.
General Principle of Ecology: Physical Enviornment
Influences/controls productivity of ecosystems, communities, and populations.
General Principle of Ecology: Evolution
Individuals within populations adapt to changes in the environment. Causes variation within the population.
General Principle of Ecology: Structure of Dynamics
Influenced by population dynamics.
Non-living aspects of an ecosystem.
Living aspects of an ecosystem. Various populations of species that form a community.
How are populations categorized?
According to food source.
Particular type of heterotroph that breaks down non-living organic matter (Chemicals from producers and consumers; waste and carcasses) into simpler form (inorganic matter) which can be reused by producers.
How do populations interact?
- Energy Flow and Chemical Cycling
- Food Webs
- Trophic Levels
- Ecological Pyramids
How Populations Interact: Energy Flow
Energy enters and ecosystem when producers absorb solar energy.
How Populations Interact: Chemical (nutrient) Cycling
Energy enters an ecosystem when producers absorb inorganic nutrients.
How Populations Interact: Food Web
Diagram representing interactions between all populations within an ecosystem.
How Populations Interact: Food Chains
What make up Food Webs. Represents a succession of organisms that eat another organism and then are eaten themselves.
How Populations Interact: Trophic Levels
Composed of all the organisms that feed at a particular link in a food chain.
Trophic Level One
Trophic Level Two
Primary consumers. What eat the producers.
Trophic Level Three
Secondary consumers. Carnivores, omnivores.
Trophic Level Four
Tertiary consumers. Carnivores that eat carnivores.
Trophic Level Five
Apex Predators. Highest level (top) of food chain.
The number of organisms at each trophic level multiplied by their weight.
How Populations Interact: Ecological Pyramid
Representation of the relationships between biomass (biological productivity) and trophic levels. A snapshot in time of an ecological community.
What is community ecology?
Interactions between populations.
Assemblage of populations of various species living close enough for possible interactions.
- The way of life of a species.
- Role a species plays in the community
ex: Habitat a species needs + interactions with other organisms.