Biology 1102: Ecology

Card Set Information

Biology 1102: Ecology
2014-04-14 19:49:49
biology ecology

Show Answers:

  1. Energy
    The ability to do work or bring about change.
  2. Kinetic Energy
    Energy of motion. 
  3. Potential Energy
    Stored energy. 
  4. Chemical Energy
    Energy stored in chemical bonds. 
  5. Mechanical Energy
    Energy of motion. 
  6. First Law of Thermodynamics: Law of Conservation of Energy
    Energy cannot be created or destroyed, but it can be changed from one form to another.
  7. Second Law of thermodynamics
    Energy cannot be changed from one form to another without a loss of usable energy.
  8. Entropy
    The relative amount of disorganization.
  9. Photosynthesis
    Converting solar energy into chemical energy of carbs. 
  10. Photosynthesis Equation
    CO2 + 6H2O = C6H12O + 6O2

    Carbon Dioxide + Water = Glucose + Oxygen
  11. Cellular Respiration Equation
    6O2 + C6H12O6 = CO2 + 6H2O

    Oxygen + Glucose = Carbon Dioxide + Water
  12. Autotroph
    An organism that carries on photosynthesis (self feeding). 
  13. Hetertroph
    Organisms that feed on other organisms (rely on outside nutrients). 
  14. Light Reactions
    Light dependent. 
  15. Calvin Cycle Reactions
    Light independent. (NADP+ links these reactions)
  16. Ecology
    The study of the interactions of organisms with each other and their physical environment. 

    How are organisms adapted to their environment?
  17. Levels of Ecological Organization
    Individual --> Population --> Community --> Ecosystem --> Biosphere
  18. Modern Ecology
    Species distribution throughout the environment.
  19. Goal of Modern Ecology
    Describe and develop testable hypothesis and models that explain and predict the distribution and abundance of populations and species.
  20. General Principle of Ecology: Physical Enviornment
    Influences/controls productivity of ecosystems, communities, and populations. 
  21. General Principle of Ecology: Evolution
    Individuals within populations adapt to changes in the environment. Causes variation within the population. 
  22. General Principle of Ecology: Structure of Dynamics
    Influenced by population dynamics. 
  23. Abiotic
    Non-living aspects of an ecosystem. 
  24. Biotic
    Living aspects of an ecosystem. Various populations of species that form a community. 
  25. How are populations categorized? 
    According to food source. 
  26. Decomposers
    Particular type of heterotroph that breaks down non-living organic matter (Chemicals from producers and consumers; waste and carcasses) into simpler form (inorganic matter) which can be reused by producers. 
  27. How do populations interact?
    • - Energy Flow and Chemical Cycling
    • - Food Webs
    • - Trophic Levels
    • - Ecological Pyramids 
  28. How Populations Interact: Energy Flow
    Energy enters and ecosystem when producers absorb solar energy.
  29. How Populations Interact: Chemical (nutrient) Cycling
    Energy enters an ecosystem when producers absorb inorganic nutrients. 
  30. How Populations Interact: Food Web
    Diagram representing interactions between all populations within an ecosystem. 
  31. How Populations Interact: Food Chains
    What make up Food Webs. Represents a succession of organisms that eat another organism and then are eaten themselves. 
  32. How Populations Interact: Trophic Levels
    Composed of all the organisms that feed at a particular link in a food chain. 
  33. Trophic Level One
    Primary producers. 
  34. Trophic Level Two
    Primary consumers. What eat the producers.
  35. Trophic Level Three
    Secondary consumers. Carnivores, omnivores. 
  36. Trophic Level Four
    Tertiary consumers. Carnivores that eat carnivores. 
  37. Trophic Level Five
    Apex Predators. Highest level (top) of food chain. 
  38. Biomass
    The number of organisms at each trophic level multiplied by their weight. 
  39. How Populations Interact: Ecological Pyramid
    Representation of the relationships between biomass (biological productivity) and trophic levels. A snapshot in time of an ecological community.
  40. What is community ecology?
    Interactions between populations.
  41. Community
    Assemblage of populations of various species living close enough for possible interactions.
  42. Ecological Niche
    • - The way of life of a species.
    • - Role a species plays in the community
    • ex: Habitat a species needs + interactions with other organisms.
  43. What are interactions between populations?
    Interspecific interactions.
  44. Interspecific Interactions: Characterized By
    • -How long it takes to reach reproductive maturity
    • -Level of reproductive output
  45. Interspecific Interactions: Opportunistic Pattern/Species
    (ex: weeds, insects)
    • (r-strategist)
    • Individual size: Small
    • Life Span: Short
    • Development: Fast
    • Offspring: Many; Little or no care for young; high mortality rate
    • Reproduction: Early
    • Environment: Ok with variable
    • Regulated by density independent factors
  46. Interspecific Interactions: Equilibrium Pattern/Species
    (ex: birds, mammals)
    • (K-strategist)
    • Individual Size: Large
    • Life Span: Long
    • Development: Slow
    • Offspring: Few, large size; Lots of and long term care; low mortality rate
    • Reproduction: Late
    • Enviornment: Adapted to stable
    • Regulated by density dependent factors
  47. Interspecific Interactions: Continuous Spectrum 
    (Have traits from both r- and K- Strategy. Ex: trees, reptiles)
    • Individual Size: Large
    • Life Span: Long
    • Development: Slow
    • Offspring: Many; No care for young; Relatively high mortality rate
    • Reproduction: Late
    • Environment: Mostly Stable
  48. Interspecific Interactions: Density Independent Factors
    • - Abiotic factors (weather, natural disasters)
    • - Effects are the same for all population sizes
    • - Regulate Opportunistic Species
  49. Interspecific Interactions: Density Dependent factors
    • - Biotic factors (Competition predation, symbiosis, disease)
    • - Effects depend on the size of the population
    • - Regulate Equilibrium Species
  50. Competition
    • - When two or more species try to utilize the same limited resource (ex: light, water, nutrients, space)
    • - Degree of competition proportional to amount of ecological niches
  51. Competitive Exclusion Principle
    (Gause's Law, 1934)
    No two species can occupy the same ecological niche at the same time if resources are limited; one species will out-compete the other.
  52. Solution to Exclusion Principle?
    Resource Partitioning
  53. Resource Partitioning
    • - Allows division of feeding niches
    • - Decreases the competition between the two species and allows occupancy of different niches and therefore survival
  54. Predation
    • When one organism (predator) feeds on another (prey).
    • - Predator and prey populations tend to cycle instead of maintaining a steady state.
  55. Types of Predators
    • - Carnivorous
    • - Herbivory
  56. Coevolution
    Present when each of two species adapts in response to selective pressure imposed by the other.
  57. Adaptations of Predators
    • - Physical: claws, teeth, stingers, poison...
    • - Sensory: eyesight, smell, hearing...
  58. Adaptations of Prey
    • - Behavioral: hiding, fleeing, herds/shoals, warning calls...
    • - Morphological: Camouflage, spines, warning coloration, mimicry...
    • - Chemical: alkaloids, sprays...
  59. Batesian mimics
    A harmless species mimics a harmful one.
  60. Mullerian Mimics
    Two species mimic each others defenses (ex: stinging)
  61. Symbiosis
    • Refers to close interactions between members of different species.
    • - 3 traditional types:
    •      - Parasitism
    •      - Commensalism 
    •      - Mutualism
  62. Symbiosis: Parasitism
    • A parasite derives nourishment from another organism (host)
    •   - parasite benefits, host is harmed
    •   - Exist in all kingdoms
    •   - The host:
    •       - A place to live and/or reproduce
    •       - Mechanism for dispersing offspring to another host needed in the life cycle
    •         - Many hosts have primary and secondary hosts
    •           - The secondary host may be a vector that transmits the parasite to the next primary host
  63. Symbiosis: Commensalism
    • One species benefits, the other is neither benefited or harmed.
    • - One provides a home and/or transportation for the other
  64. Symbiosis: Mutualism
    • Both organisms benefit.
    • - The degree of benefit may not be equal
  65. Population Ecology
    • Study of population dynamics in relation with their environment.
    • - Populations are very dynamic
  66. Population Ecology includes...
    • - Boundaries/territories
    • - Spacial Structure (density-distribution-dispersion)
    • - Dynamic Behavior
    • - Temporal Continuity
    • - Spatial Continuity
  67. Patterns of Population Growth
    • - Each population has a particular pattern of growth
    • - The population size can change according to a per capita rate of increase = growth rate
  68. Biotic Potential
    Maximum reproductive capacity of a population under optimum environmental conditions.
  69. Exponential Growth
    (J-Shaped curve)
    • - Optimum growth curve
    • - Has two phases:
    •     - Lag: Growth is slow because of small population
    •     - Exponential growth phase: Growth accelerates, and the population exhibits its biotic potential
    • - Generally unsustainable due to environmental resistance.
  70. Regulating Factors (Environmental Resistance)
    • Encompasses all those enviornmental conditions that prevent populations from reaching their biotic potential.
    • - Reproductive potential
    • - Availability of food
    • - Presence and absence of disease
    • - Presence and absence of predators
  71. Consequences of Environmental Resistance
    The optimum growth curve (J-Shaped) is displaced (S-Shaped).
  72. Logistic Growth
    • The intensity of environmental resistance increases as population grows larger, until population growth levels off. 
    • - Lag: Growth is small because population is small
    • - Exponential: Growth accelerates and population exhibits its biotic potential
    • - Deceleration: rate of population growth slows down (death rate = birth rate)
    • - Stable equilibrium phase occurs at the carrying capacity of the environment
  73. Carrying Capacity
    Number of individuals of a species that a given environment can support.
  74. Cohort
    A group of individuals born at the same time.
  75. Survivorship Curves
    • Type 1: Most survive until old age (ex: humans)
    • Type 2: Decreases consistently over time (ex: songbirds)
    • Type 3: Most die at young age (ex: oysters)