MMG 301 test three

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MMG 301 test three
2014-04-04 02:31:57
MMG 301

test three
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  1. mRNA molecules that directly function to repress their own translation by binding to metabolites and changing conformation are known as?
  2. which of the following iis a method of artificially-induced translation that is used to introduce foreign or plasmid DNA into bacterial cells such as E. Coli.
  3. in the DNA repair pathway in E.Coli the LexA protein is cleaved by?
  4. what are the three DNA repair mechanisms discussed in class?
    • photo repair
    • mismatch repair
    • excision repair
  5. what type of regulation discussed in class involves stem-loop structures of mRNA?
  6. what type of plasmid is designed with restriction sites and transcription and translation elements to maximize production of recombinant proteins?
    expression plasmid
  7. microbial fermenters in the 100-3000 liter size range are known as?
    pilot scale
  8. the skins and stems of grapes left in the juice during the early stages of winemaking is known as ?
  9. where are benthic organisms found in an aquatic lake ecosystem?
    on the sides and bottom
  10. which genus from the list below is considered a eukaryotic primary producer in marine habitats?
  11. where is the most hydrogen sulfide found during a summer ecosystem lake?
    toward the bottom
  12. select the item below that is not involved in control of gene transcription in bacteria.
    a: repressor protein
    b: allosteric effector
    c: sigma factor
    d: activator protein
    e: operator
    b: allosteric effector
  13. how is the expression of the E.Coli maltose operon controlled?
    positive control involving an activator protein
  14. which region of the retroviral genome contains the gene for reverse transcriptase?
  15. synthesis of alarmone mmolecules occurs when the RelA protein is bound the a ribosome, and the ribosome has ______ bound to it.
    uncharged tRNA
  16. which term below describes genes that are transcriptionally unregulated and expressed at a relatively constant low level.
    a: constitutive
    b: autoinduced
    c: competent
    d: catabolic repression
    e: allosteric
    a: constitutive
  17. in class we discussed an infection thread, where would one find this?
    early stage of legume nodule formation
  18. in one type of animal-microbe symbiotic relationship, volatile fatty acids are produced by the microbial symbionts. these volatile fatty acids serve an important nutrient source to the host animal. what is the host for this symbiosis?
    ruminant animals
  19. which of these viruses had a filamentous structure?
    a: T4
    b: tobacco mosaic
    c: phiX174
    d: lambda
    e: T7
    tobacco mosaic
  20. In our bacterial genetics lecture, we discussed two case studies in which antibiotic resistance was transferred to between species in hospital settings. what was the most likely mmechanism for plasmid-mediated transfer of antibiotic resistance from one bacterium to another?
  21. cyclic AMP was discussed in class because it is involved in what type of regulation in bacterial cells?
    catabolite repression
  22. one strategy of determining the DNA sequence of a genome involves generating a set of ordered plasmid clones containing large genomic DNA inserts. Each of the ordered large genomic clones is then isolated and sequenced using standard plasmid cloning and sequence methods. what is the name of this method?
    top side down sequencing
  23. animals that are considered hind gut fermenters contain a specialized pouch located at the beginning of the large intestine. what is its name?
  24. which of these animal diseases is transmitted by a mosquito vector?
    a: eastern equine encephalitis
    b: rabies
    c: epizootic hemorrhagic disease
    d: leptospirosis
    e: avian influenza
    eastern equine encephalitis
  25. influenza classification as either type A, B, C is the result of what antigen of the virus?
    nucleocapsid protein
  26. during sensing of the external chmical environment by bacterial cells, what component of the signal transduction pathway directly binds to the regulatory region of the DNA of operons that are being regulated?
    response regulator
  27. during microbial production of vinegar:
    acetic acid bacteria convert ethanol to acetic acid
  28. true or false. an example of metabolic pathway engineering is using high flow rates of air to aid acetic acid production during manufacture of vinegar.
  29. true or false. an example of metabolic pathway engineering is using purified microbial enzymes for manufacturing of high fructose corn syrup
  30. true or false. an example of metabolic pathway engineering is using recombinant DNA methods to add pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase genes to E.Coli to allow the organism to produce ethanol.
  31. true or false. an example of metabolic pathway engineering is growing yeast cells in a molasses-based medium for subsequent packing as a food supplement.
  32. true or false. an example of metabolic pathway engineering is addition of pure culture of yeast to a wine-making process to initiate alcohol fermentation
  33. a type of biological interaction between two organisma that is unidirectional where one partner benefits the other is neither benefited nor harmed is:
  34. the biochemical multistep pathway in which nitrate is converted into nitrogen gas is called?
  35. which component if nitrogen fixation catalyzes the reaction of nitrogen gas to two ammonias?
  36. antagonism is also known by this other name:
  37. white nose syndrome in bats is cause by:
    a fungus
  38. explain briefly how viruses can package all of the genes required for reproduction within a very small nucleocapsid using a small genome.
    overlapping genes results in efficient use of viral genomes
  39. what is the main function of hemagglutinin in the influenza life cycle?
    attachment to respiratory cells
  40. what is the name for the processĀ of taking up DNA from the environment into the bacteria
  41. a mutated bacterial strain that has a nutritional requirement for growth is known as an ________ is when a second, functional copy of a gene in a single cell can fulfill the role of the original mutated gene, thus restoring the cell to the original phenotype
  42. amensialism is an ecology term known as?
  43. what is the name of the reaction that changes NH4 and NO2 to N2 and 2H2O
  44. some of the assimilated nutrients in bacteria and protozoa are mineralized and then assimilated directly by phytoplankton without transfer to higher trophic levels in the aquatic ecosystem. this is called the?
    microbial loop
  45. what is the layer of the lake associated with high hydrogen sulfide content?
  46. what is the name of the stratified layer on and surrounding ta deep sea vent?
    microbial mats
  47. addition of a gene or genes into an organism to create new biochemichal pathways and products is know as
    metabolic pathway engineering
  48. microorganisms can cause problems in petroleum storage tanks and pipelines because they can form this corrosive chemical:
    hydrogen sulfide
  49. true or false. petroleum is extremely toxic to all bacteria and archaea.
  50. what is the function of the MerP protein in microbial resistance to mercury?
    binding of mercuric ion in the periplasm of the cell
  51. bioleaching is used to?
    solubilize metals from ore, allowing easier recovery
  52. in regulation of the arginine operon in E.Coli, arginine is known as the?
  53. most regulatort repressor proteins bind to DNA sequence known as the?
    inverted repeat
  54. true or false. ribonuclease E is involved in attenuation control of the tryptophan mRNA translation
  55. the lac repressor binds to what regulatory element of the lac operon?
  56. true or false. when a sensor kinase binds to an external environmental signal molecule, it phosphorylates itself.
  57. inhibition of enzyme activity by a small molecule that is the endproduct f=of the biochemical pathway is called:
    feedback inhibition
  58. Hrf is short for High Frequency of ______
  59. true or false. conjugation is the direct transfer of genetic material between two bacterial cells.
  60. what is the correct term for a contiguous set of genes transcribed as a single mRNA under the control of a single regulatory region?
  61. true or false. sigma factors are transcription factors that regulate large numbers of genes or operons, often in response to changes in the envirmonent.
  62. a point mutation that results in a codon that codes for a different amino acid is called a ___________ mutation
  63. true or false. conjugation isĀ used to transfer chromosomal DNA between bacterial cells, but not plasmid DNA
  64. which of these best describes plasmid-mediated transfer of genes?
    a: mobilization
    b: recombination
    c: transfection
    d: transduction
    a: mobilization
  65. what is the first step in homologous recombination?
    formation of a nick in the donor DNA