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- State of feeling sad, helpless, and lacking in energy and pleasure for weeks at a time.
- Low levels of BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor)
Depression after giving birth
- Drugs that prevent the presynaptic synapses that release serotonin and catecholamine molecules from reabsorbing them.
- Prolongs the presence of neurotransmitters in the synaptic cleft
- Causes drowsiness, dry mouth, heart irregularities, difficulty peeing.
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
Drugs that block the reuptake of serotonin into the presynaptic terminal
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors
- Block MAO, a presynaptic terminal enzyme that metabolizes serotonin and catecholamines into inactive forms
- So the presynaptic terminal has more neurotransmitters available for release
Miscellaneous antidepressants with mild side effects
- Electrically inducing a convulsion in an attempt to relieve depression or other disorder
- Increases proliferation of neurons in the hippocampus, responsiveness to exercise
Condition in which a patient alternates between depression and mania (restless activity, self-confidence, excitement, rambling speech, loss of inhibitions).
Lithium and anticonvulsant drugs
- Stabilizes mood in bipolar patients
- Decrease glutamate activity
- Blocks synthesis of arachidonic acid, synthesized during brain inflammation
Seasonal affective disorder
- Are phase-delayed unlike patients with other forms of depression
- Explanation: light affecting serotonin synapses and altering circadian rhythms
Unawareness of stimuli to which a person did not direct their attention
- Burst of stimuli leaving a synapse potentiated for long periods of time
- Specificity - only the most active synapse is strengthened
- Cooperativity - nearly simultaneous stimulation by two or more axons produce much more LTP
- Associativity - pairing a weak input with a strong input enhances later response to the weak input
- Glutamate receptor that also responds to AMPA
- When massively stimulated by glutamate, the AMPA receptor allows nearby NMDA receptors to be stimulated by glutamate also.
- Glutamate receptor that also responds to NMDA
- When stimulated, allows calcium to enter the cell, which sets into motion a series of reactions that potentiate the dendrite's future responsiveness to glutamate at AMPA receptors.