15.1 Mood Disorders

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  1. Major depression
    • State of feeling sad, helpless, and lacking in energy and pleasure for weeks at a time.
    • Low levels of BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor)
  2. Postpartum depression
    Depression after giving birth
  3. Tricyclics
    • Drugs that prevent the presynaptic synapses that release serotonin and catecholamine molecules from reabsorbing them.
    • Prolongs the presence of neurotransmitters in the synaptic cleft
    • Causes drowsiness, dry mouth, heart irregularities, difficulty peeing.
  4. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors
    Drugs that block the reuptake of serotonin into the presynaptic terminal
  5. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors
    • Block MAO, a presynaptic terminal enzyme that metabolizes serotonin and catecholamines into inactive forms
    • So the presynaptic terminal has more neurotransmitters available for release
  6. Atypical antidepressants
    Miscellaneous antidepressants with mild side effects
  7. Electroconvulsive therapy
    • Electrically inducing a convulsion in an attempt to relieve depression or other disorder
    • Increases proliferation of neurons in the hippocampus, responsiveness to exercise
  8. Bipolar disorder
    Condition in which a patient alternates between depression and mania (restless activity, self-confidence, excitement, rambling speech, loss of inhibitions).
  9. Lithium and anticonvulsant drugs
    • Stabilizes mood in bipolar patients
    • Decrease glutamate activity
    • Blocks synthesis of arachidonic acid, synthesized during brain inflammation
  10. Seasonal affective disorder
    • Are phase-delayed unlike patients with other forms of depression
    • Explanation: light affecting serotonin synapses and altering circadian rhythms
  11. Inattentional blindness
    Unawareness of stimuli to which a person did not direct their attention
  12. Long-term potentiation
    • Burst of stimuli leaving a synapse potentiated for long periods of time
    • Specificity - only the most active synapse is strengthened
    • Cooperativity - nearly simultaneous stimulation by two or more axons produce much more LTP
    • Associativity - pairing a weak input with a strong input enhances later response to the weak input
  13. AMPA receptor
    • Glutamate receptor that also responds to AMPA
    • When massively stimulated by glutamate, the AMPA receptor allows nearby NMDA receptors to be stimulated by glutamate also.
  14. NMDA receptor
    • Glutamate receptor that also responds to NMDA
    • When stimulated, allows calcium to enter the cell, which sets into motion a series of reactions that potentiate the dendrite's future responsiveness to glutamate at AMPA receptors.
Card Set
15.1 Mood Disorders
kalat psych 261
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