Physio Ch 17 Mechanics of Breathing

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Author:
Iflores
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269320
Filename:
Physio Ch 17 Mechanics of Breathing
Updated:
2014-04-05 15:52:03
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Human Physiology Silverthorne Dorner
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Physiology
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  1. List the functions of the respiratory system.
    • Exchange gases between atmosphere and the blood
    • Homeostasis-regulation of body pH
    • Protection from inhaled pathogen & irritating substances
    • Vocalization
  2. Distinguish between external and internal respiration.
    -during expiration muscles relax, elastic recoil returns lung, rib cage, and diaphragm, to their relaxed position(passive expiration)

    -
    during inspiration diaphragm contract, pushing down, rib cage moves out and upward via muscles, and lungs expand, also, P inside lung must be lower than atmospheric P for air to move into alveoli
  3. List and describe factors influencing air flow to and from lungs.
    • air flow moves from higher pressure to lower pressure
    • muscular pump creates pressure gradients
    • resistance to flow, diameter of tubs
  4. Identify the the major components of the respiratory system, list in order from environment to alveoli.
    Oral and nasal cavity-->pharynx-->larynx-->trachea-->L & R primary bronchus-->secondary bronchus-->bronchioles-->alveoli
  5. Distinguish between partial and visceral pleura. Note where pleural cavity exist.
  6. Explain what "conditioning" air refers to.
    • Warms the air to body temperature so alveoli aren't damaged by cold air
    • humidifies air to 100% so epithelium doesn't dry out
    • Filters out foreign material so viruses and bacteria don't reach the alveoli
  7. Name the cell types of alveoli and their function.
    • type II alveolar cells are smaller but thicker, synthesize surfactant which aids in the expansion of lungs by mixing with the thin fluid lining alveoli.
    • type I alveolar cells (95%), larger, so thin which allows gases to diffuse rapidly
  8. Describe how Dalton's & Boyles's Laws influence breathing.
    • Dalton's Law states that total pressure of a mixture of gases is the sum of the pressures of the individual gases. The pressure of an individual gas mixture os known as the partial pressure of gas (Pgas).
    •      Partial pressure of gas=Patm x % of gas in             atm

    • Boyles's Law expresses the inverse relationship between pressure and volume. as pressure ↑, volume ↓
    •    P1V1=P2V2

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