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List the functions of the respiratory system.
- Exchange gases between atmosphere and the blood
- Homeostasis-regulation of body pH
- Protection from inhaled pathogen & irritating substances
Distinguish between external and internal respiration.
-during expiration muscles relax, elastic recoil returns lung, rib cage, and diaphragm, to their relaxed position(passive expiration)
-during inspiration diaphragm contract, pushing down, rib cage moves out and upward via muscles, and lungs expand, also, P inside lung must be lower than atmospheric P for air to move into alveoli
List and describe factors influencing air flow to and from lungs.
- air flow moves from higher pressure to lower pressure
- muscular pump creates pressure gradients
- resistance to flow, diameter of tubs
Identify the the major components of the respiratory system, list in order from environment to alveoli.
Oral and nasal cavity-->pharynx-->larynx-->trachea-->L & R primary bronchus-->secondary bronchus-->bronchioles-->alveoli
Distinguish between partial and visceral pleura. Note where pleural cavity exist.
Explain what "conditioning" air refers to.
- Warms the air to body temperature so alveoli aren't damaged by cold air
- humidifies air to 100% so epithelium doesn't dry out
- Filters out foreign material so viruses and bacteria don't reach the alveoli
Name the cell types of alveoli and their function.
- type II alveolar cells are smaller but thicker, synthesize surfactant which aids in the expansion of lungs by mixing with the thin fluid lining alveoli.
- type I alveolar cells (95%), larger, so thin which allows gases to diffuse rapidly
Describe how Dalton's & Boyles's Laws influence breathing.
- Dalton's Law states that total pressure of a mixture of gases is the sum of the pressures of the individual gases. The pressure of an individual gas mixture os known as the partial pressure of gas (Pgas).
- Partial pressure of gas=Patm x % of gas in atm
- Boyles's Law expresses the inverse relationship between pressure and volume. as pressure ↑, volume ↓