Physiologic Adaptions Exam 3

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  1. 2 hormones of pregnancy and they cause what?
    • estrogen=vasodilation/BIG
    • progesterone=relaxation
  2. Increase of this tells a person is prego
  3. Hematologic system and pregnancy
    • everything increases
    • RBC increases 20-30%
    • WBC/Leukocytes increase to 15 or 30K to heal
    • Fibrin and Fibrinogen increase to stop bleeding
  4. Because Fibrin and Fibrinogen increase during pregnancy the prego is at risk for....
  5. Effects of estrogen on the reproductive system
    • uterus- grows by hyperplasia/hypertrophy
    • cervix- grows by blood congestion
    • vagina-grows by increased vascularity
  6. Chadwicks sign
    estrogen causes the vagina and labia to be purple
  7. Goodell's sign
    estrogen causes the softening of the cervix
  8. Increased estrogen in the vagina causes it to be.....not
    • glycogen
    • acidic
  9. Estrogen causes the vulva to
    increase by hyperplasia and hypertrophy from increased vascularity
  10. Progesterone effects the uterus by
    • maintaining the endometrium in the uterus allowing for growth and attachment
    • relaxing smooth muscle preventing pre term labor
  11. Progesterone and estrogen effect the breasts by
    • increasing sebaceous glands
    • erection of nipples
    • pigmenting areola
    • production of colostrum
  12. How do estrogen and progesterone differ in effects of breast?
    estrogen increases the growth of ductal tissue

    progesterone increases the growth of lobule tissue
  13. How does pregnancy affect the pancreas?
    • causes an increase of insulin resistance
    • allowing for increased blood glucose
    • causing increased risk for GDM

    test for this 24-28 weeks
  14. How does progesterone effect the respiratory system?
    • relaxes smooth muscle so they need to take in more O2
    • increased respiratory depth...noisy breathing
    • increased tidal volume
    • increased minute volume
  15. How does estrogen effect the respiratory system?
    • increases vascularity causing.....
    • change in voice
    • plugged ears
    • bleeding gums
    • stuffed nose
    • epistaxis
  16. What are the physical changes to the respiratory system and the result
    • increase in uterus size pushes up the diaphragm
    • causing decreased lung expansion
    • resulting in compensation by
    • flared ribs
    • substernal angle widens
    • increased circumference of chest
  17. How does progesterone effect the cardiovascular system?
    • smooth muscle of heart relax
    • causing peripheral vascular resistance (decrease in BP)
    • BUT stable BP cuz of increase in blood volume
  18. How do you get varicose veins during pregnancy?
    • Progesterone causes decreased peripheral vascular resistance
    • causing blood to pool in the veins cuz cant get back up to the heart
  19. How does estrogen effect the cardiovascular system
    • increased sodium and water retention
    • increased renal perfusion
    • increased GFR
    • Increased load of sugar
    • sugar spills in to urine
    • bacteria thrive on sugar...

    Result UTI and yeast infections
  20. If have a urine dip stick result of +4 for sugar.....look for
    • diabetes
    • +1 or +2 is ok
  21. How does progesterone effect the stomach?
    relaxes smooth muscle of the esophageal sphincter tone causing heartburn
  22. How does progesterone effect the small intestines?
    • relaxes smooth muscle decreasing motility
    • slower emptying time
    • increased nutrient absorption....good for fetus
  23. How does Progesterone effect the large intestine?
    • relaxes smooth muscle decreasing motility
    • allowing for more water absorption
    • causing constipation
    • hemorrhoids
  24. How does progesterone/estrogen effect the gallbladder
    • bile salts accumulate causing
    • gallstones
    • itching
  25. How do estrogen and progesterone effect the bladder?
    estrogen causes hypertrophy

    progesterone causes decreased tone and increased capacity of urine resulting in more stasis causing UTI's
  26. How do estrogen and progesterone effect the kidneys?
    estrogen causes hypertrophy

    progesterone causes decreased tone and increased stasis-UTI's
  27. How do estrogen/progesterone affect the skin together?
    • cause increase in melanocytic hormone=
    • linea nigra
    • chloasma (face patches)
    • darkening of areola
  28. How does estrogen effect the skin by itself?
    • vasodilation of blood vessels causing
    • vascular spider  on face, neck, upper chest and arms
    • palmar erythema on feet and palms
  29. What happens to connective tissue from pregnancy?
    linear tears....causing stretch marks
  30. What happens to hair and nails with pregnancy?
    fewer follicles are in resting stage causing increased hair and nail growth during pregnancy

    but will go back to normal after
  31. What does progesterone do for the skeletal system?
    relaxation of pelvic ligaments and joints
  32. What postural changes happen during the 2nd and 3rd trimester of pregnancy?
    2nd waddling to compensate for change in center of balance

    3rd leans back causing progressive lorodosis and backache
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Physiologic Adaptions Exam 3
2014-04-06 00:45:18

Physiologic Adaptations
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