Exam III. 5 (Ferns)

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Exam III. 5 (Ferns)
2014-04-05 20:28:21
Plant Kingdom
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  1. I.                    Smaller Group of Fern: Heterosporous Ferns
    a.      Sporophyte produces __                                                       i.      They produce different kind of spores produced by meiosis
    What are the two types of spores?
    two kinds of sporangia (mega and microsporangium)

    megaspores and microspores
  2. Explain mega and microspores.
    1. Megaspores (larger spores)—germinateà female gametophyteà archegonia (no antheridia)

    2. Microspores (smaller spores)—germinateàmale gametophyteà antheridia
  3. What don't these heterosporous spores look like?
    don't look fernlike
  4. Marsilea
    1) Parts
    2) Where is it common at?
    1) blade, pinnae (part of leaf floats on surface of water); sometimes, they have a long petiole

    2) very common in s. part (FL in ditches, shell ponds, can't grow in really deep water; not in PA
  5. How does Marsilea reproduce?
                                                                  i.      Reproducesà does not reproduce the same way a moss does in a way, but the reproductive structures do not really look alike
  6. Explain the sorocarp
    1) its outside
    2) each prob represents?
    3) when it opens?
    4) what it has?
    •                                                               i.      outside is very hard
    • 2.      Each prob represents a pinna that is closed
    • 3.      When it opensà gelatinous ring coming out (prob a pinna) each attached to it is a sorus
    • 4.      Has an indusium; clear covering 
  7. Explain the sorocarp
    1) inside
    2) large ring?
    3) mega?
    4) micro?
    • 1.      Inside each round structure is a sporangia with both mega and microsporangium
    • 2.      Large ring is the sorophore
    • 3.      Mega: 32 and 64 spores
    • a.      All develop into one megaspore
    • 4.      In the micro: all develop into microspores
  8. Marsilia life cycle                                                              
    Life cycle (on last page of handout or next to last)
    1.      __

    What does the microspore do and explain?


    • 1.      Microspore divides to produce male gametophyte with two antheridia (practically, whole male gametophyte is two antheridia)
    • a.      One small: prothalial cell; basically doesn’t do anything; may be all that’s left of vegetative tissue
    • b.      One large
    • c.       Male has to swim to female
  9. Explain the female gametophyte
    Why is it larger?
    • 1.      Female gametophyte: one end of the female gametophyte bulges out and an archegonia forms from this end
    • a.      Female gametophyte has to store all of the food the young sporophyte will need until its able ot begin photosynthesis
  10. Difference in way spores germinate depends on? 

    What are the two?
    life cycles

    homosporous: exosporal

    heterosporous: gametophyte is a bit larger than spre
  11. Homosporous
    •                                                               i.      Gametophyte grows outside original spore wall
    • 1.      As the gametophyte develops, it will be larger than original spore
    • Typical
  12. Heterosporous
    •                                                               i.      Gametophyte develops with spore wall around it
    •                                                             ii.      Original spore wall would be at the neck
    •                                                           iii.      Tiny bit larger, but not by much
  13. Economic importance
    • a.      Put in gardens
    • b.      Industrially: not
    • c.       Edible fiddlehead