Exam III. 6 Fern Allies

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  1. I.                   Two kinds?
    II.                Same genus: __
    III.             Been around a long timr; first record (fossil) goes back 390 million years; one major change; recahced thei anximum size and are now getting smaller; reached abundance in size about 300 mil years ago
    • Horsetalks and scouring rushes
    • ecuiphinus
  2. I.                   One main stem; if classifying as __; leaves are very small 
    II.                Similar to ferns: underground rhizomes, uprtight stems (which some have), roots
    The reason theyare  fern allies reach their peak in the terrestrial flora the same time plants do
    III.             Calamites (page 400)
    IV.             Equisetum arvense (homosporous)
    a.      __ and __ stems (__come first)
    Shouldn’tbe very long that you __

    1.      Like soil that is well drained
    • scallop
    • Fertile and sterile
    • female
    • see a patch of these brown stems
  3. a.      Not all horsetails have a dichotomy between __ and __
    b.      Name that applies to where leaves are attached to sstem: __
    c.       In btween is an __, whose __ depends on plants
    d.      http://www2.puc.edu/Faculty/Gilbert_Muth/art0057.jpgNodes is a __ where you can pull them apart
    e.       Epidermal cells have __in their cell walls; makes stems rather hard
    • photosynthetic and sterile stems
    • node
    • internode
    • legnnth
    • pont of weaknes
    • silica
  4. a.      __= cone
                                                                  i.      Each section of cone is a __
    1.      Each produces about __
                                                                ii.      The stalk that attaches to each cone section is __
    1.      Bottom part of each sporangium faces __
    • Strobilus (reproductive structure)
    • modified leaf
    • eight to ten sporangia
    • horizontal
    • the center of the cone; horizontal
  5.                                                               i.      Winglike structures come off the spores
    1.      __
    a.      Extensions of the spore wall
    2.      Elaters do what?
    3.      Very sensitive to __
    a.      __ when humid
    b.      Dryà uncurl 
    • Elaters; allow it to move by wind
    • wrap tightly around each spore
    • humidity
    • Curl up
  6.                                                               i.      Each spore germinates into a __ that is __
    1.      It produces both of them because its __
    b.      Advantages of different timing (fern)
                                                                  i.      ___

    c.       Disadvantage
                                                                  i.      __
    • small gametophyte that is photosynthetic
    • homosporous
    • Sperm and egg come from different gametophyte and allows genetic diversity
    • There has to be a group or there is no fertilization at all
  7. I.                   Equisetum hyemale
    a.      Tend to like to grow in __environments
    b.      No __
    c.       By the time the leaves mature, they are __
                                                                  i.      Do nothing
    d.      Every stem can produce a __
    • wet
    • side branches
    • brown
    • cone or a strobilus
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Exam III. 6 Fern Allies
2014-04-06 01:00:30
Plant Kingdom
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