AEMT Drugs

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Author:
chrisrj1272
ID:
269367
Filename:
AEMT Drugs
Updated:
2014-04-05 21:04:42
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AEMT Drugs
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AEMT drugs
Description:
AEMT drugs
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  1. Normal Saline
    • Description:
    • 0.9
    • perent saline solution, sterile water with sodium chloride(NaCl) 154meq per
    • liter sodium, and approximately 154meq per liter of chloride to match the
    • concentration found in the human body

    • Classification:
    • Isotonic
    • Crytalloid

    • Indications:  hypovolemic, heat
    • exhaustion, heat stroke and diabetic ketoacidosis

    • Side
    • Effects: if large amounts are administered may cause
    • hemodilution and an electrole imbalance

    • Contraindications:
    • patient
    • with heat failure (may cause fluid overload)

    • Dosage:
    • dosage
    • dependent on conditions and protocols

    • Route:
    • intravenous
    • infusion
  2. Lactated Ringers
    • Description:
    • Sterile
    • water containing the following electrolytes

    •                         Sodium,
    • 130mEq/L

    •                         Potassium,
    • 4mEq/L

    •                         Calcium,
    • 30mEq/L

    •                         Chloride,
    • 109mEq/L

    •                         Lactate,
    • 28mEq/L

    • Classification:
    • Isotonic crystalloid solution

    • Indications:
    • Significant
    • burns and hypovolemia

    • Side
    • Effects: Rare in therapeutic dosages

    • Contraindications:
    • Do
    • not use in patient with heart failure, renal failure, or suspected
    • hyperkalemia.

    • Dosage:
    • Depends
    • on the condition for which lactated ringer’s solution is being administered.
    • Follow protocol. A keep open rate is 30 ml/hour.

    • Route:
    • IV
    • infusion
  3. Albuterol Sulfate

    • Description:
    • Albuterol
    • sulfate (Proventil, Ventolin) is a sympathetic beta, agonist used to reverse
    • bronchiolar smooth muscle constriction in patients with asthma and chronic
    • obstructive pulmonary disease

    • Classification:
    • Beta2- selective sympathomimetic; bronchodilator

    • Indications:
    • Wheezing
    • caused by asthma, and COPD, and some other conditions

    • Side
    • Effects: Anxiety, palpations, chest discomfort, headache, and
    • perspiration

    • Contraindications:
    • Hypersensitivity
    • and symptomatic tachycardia

    • Dosage:
    • Meterd-dose
    • inhaler: one or two 90-mcg sprays. The use of a spece devise is preffered when
    • administering albuterol by metered-dose inhaler, especially in pediatric
    • patients. Small-volume nebulizer: 2.5 mg diluted in 2.5 mL over 5 to 15
    • minutes; pediatric dosage, 0.15mg/kg diluted in 2.5 mL normal saline

    • Route:
    • Inhalation
  4. Aspirin
    • Description:
    • Asprin
    • is a salicylate that reduces platelet aggregation by inhibiting the release of
    • a prostaglandin called thromboxane A2.

    • Classification:
    • Platelet
    • aggregation inhibitor; nonsteroidal anti inflammatory; analgesic

    • Indications:
    • In
    • the prehospital setting, acute coronary syndrome and stroke.

    • Side
    • Effects: GI upset, bleeding, nausea, vomiting, and wheezing

    • Contraindications:
    • Hypersensitivity;
    • not given to children

    • Dosage:
    • The
    • American Heart Association currently recommends 160 to 325 mg of chewable aspirin.
    • Children’s aspirin is preferred because it is chewable, which increases the
    • rate of absorption, and does not require water to assist swallowing (American
    • Heart association, 2010)

     Route: Oral
  5. 50-percent Dextrose
    • Description:
    • Sterile
    • water containing 5 percent dextrose (5g/100ml)

    • Classification:
    • Hypotonic
    • carbohydrate-containing solution

    • Indications:
    • Used for prophylactic IV access or to dilute concentrated drug for IV infusion

    • Side
    • Effects: rare when given in therapeutic doses

    • Contraindications:
    • not
    • to be used with patient who requires iv fluid replacement or in pt who is
    • hyperglycemic. Do not use on patient with a traumatic brain injury or stroke

    • Dosage:
    • usually
    • administered at a keep open rate (30 mL/hour)

    • Route:
    • IV
    • infusion
  6. Epinephrine 1:1,000
    • Description:
    • Epinepherine
    • is a naturally occurring hormone (adrenalin) secreted by the adrenal glands in
    • response to sympathetic nervous system stimulation. Epinephrine binds to alpha1
    • beta1, and beta2- adrenergic receptor sites, causing Vasoconstriction,
    • increased heart rate and force of contraction, and bronchiolar smooth muscle
    • relaxation.

    • Classification:
    • Sympathomimetic

    • Indications:
    • Acute
    • anaphylaxis

    • Side
    • Effects: Palpations, tachycardia, anxiety, headache,
    • dizziness, nausa, and vomiting are common side effects. Patients with
    • underlying cardiac disease also may experience chest pain and acute myocardial
    • infarction.

    • Contraindications:
    • Use
    • with caution in patients with significant cardiovascular disease or
    • hypertension

    • Dosage:
    • 0.3
    • to 0.5 mg subcutaneously or intramuscularly every 15 minutes as needed;
    • pediatric dose, 0.01 mg/kg.

    • Route:
    • subcutaneous
    • or intramuscular injection
  7. Glucagon
    • Description:
    • Glucagon is a pancreatic hormone that affects the blood glucose level by
    • promoting glycogenolysis and gluconeogensis and inhibiting glycogenesis.

    • Classification:
    • Hormone
    • with antihypolycemic action

    • Indications:
    • Inability
    • to establish intravenous access in patients with significant hypoglycemia

    • Side
    • Effects: Side effects are rare, but hypotension, dizziness,
    • headache, nausea, and vomiting may occur.

    • Contraindications:
    • Hypersensitivity

    • Dosage:
    • 1mg

    • Route: Intramuscular
    • injection
  8. Naloxone
    • Description:
    • Medication
    • used to reverse respiratory depression associated with narcotic overdose. (has
    • a higher affinity for narcotic receptor sites and when administered, displaces
    • the narcotic, blocking its effects.)

    • Classification:
    • Narcotic
    • antagonist

    • Indications:
    • to
    • reverse the respiratory depression associated with narcotic overdose

    • Side
    • Effects: these are rare, but hypotension, hypertension,
    • nausea, vomiting, and cardiac arrhythmias may occur

    • Contraindications:
    • known
    • hypersensitivity

    • Dosage:
    • 1
    • to 2 mg slow IV push titrated to restore respiratory rate. If no effect, may be
    • repeated at 5-min intervals. An intranasal formulation is also available.

    • Route:
    • slow
    • IV push
  9. Nitroglycerin
    • Description:
    • supplied
    • as tablets or a metered-dose spray for sublingual administration in the
    • treatment of acute coronary syndrome. (potent vasodilators that increase blood
    • flow to the coronary arteries and decrease workload by dilating the peripheral
    • vasculature and reduce preload.

    • Classification:
    • Nitrate;
    • Vasodilator

    • Indications:
    • Chest
    • pain associated with acute coronary syndrome

    • Side
    • Effects: potent vasodilator and commonly causes an immediate
    • headache. May cause dizziness, weakness, tachycardia, hypotension, dry mouth,
    • nausea, and vomiting. The spray or tablets may cause burning sensation on
    • administration.

    • Contraindications:
    • Hypotension,
    • increased intracranial pressure, and use of erectile dysfunction medications
    • with 24 to 36 hours

    • Dosage:
    • Administer
    • 0.4 mg sublingually. If chest pain persist and the systolic blood pressure
    • remains at least 90mmHg, the dose may be repeated every 5 minutes to a total of
    • three doses

    • Route:
    • Sublingual
  10. Nitrous Oxide
    • Description:
    • (CNS
    • depressant) A 50/50 mix of oxygen and nitrous oxide delivered to a
    • modified-demand valve and mask that the patient self-administers by holding the
    • mask and inhaling.

    • Classification:
    • Analgesic
    • and anesthetic

    • Indications:
    • severe
    • muscular pain, and chest pain associated with acute coronary syndrome and not
    • relieved by nitroglycerin

    • Side
    • Effects: Dizziness, decreased mental status, hallucinations,
    • nausea, and vomiting

    • Contraindications:
    • decreased
    • level of responsiveness, inability to follow instructions, pregnant, traumatic
    • brain injury, COPD, suspected pneumothorax, abdominal pain, and suspected bowl
    • obstruction

    • Dosage:
    • self
    • administered by holding mask and inhaling 50% nitrous oxide 50 % oxygen

    • Route:
    • inhalation

    • Precaution:
    • only
    • use in well-ventilated area to prevent sedation of the medical staff. Should
    • not be used by or around pregnant patient or care giver
  11. Oxygen
    • Description:
    • colorless,
    • odorless, tasteless gas. Oxygen is necessary for cellular energy production.
    • When inhaled, oxygen molecules cross the respiratory membrane to attach to
    • hemoglobin in red blood cells for transport to the tissues

    • Classification:
    • Gas

    • Indications:
    • Dyspnea,
    • hypoxia;SpO2< 95 percent

    • Side
    • Effects: If used for long period of time without humidifier
    • may cause drying of mucous membranes and nose bleeds

    • Contraindications:
    • none

    • Dosage:
    • dependent
    • on situation in order maintain O2 sat of 95%

    • Route:
    • inhalation
    • via nasal cannula, face mask, non rebreather, mask or bag valve mask
  12. Activated Charcoal
    • Description:
    • Finely
    • powdered charcoal activated with oxygen, commonly diluted in water for oral
    • administration. Binds with ingested toxins in the GI tract to prevent
    • absorption.

    • Classification:
    • Absorbent

    • Indications:
    • Oral
    • ingestion of toxin

    • Side
    • Effects: black, tarry stools and constipation

    • Contraindications:
    • decreased
    • level of responsiveness or increased risk of aspiration; or ingestion of
    • corrosives, caustics, or petroleum distillates

    • Dosage:
    • 1g/kg
    • orally (adult and pediatric patients)

    • Route:
    • Oral
  13. Diphenhydramine
    • Description:
    • its
    • nonselective and blocks histamine receptors (H1 and H2)

    • Classification:
    • Antihistamine

    • Indications:
    • Used
    • for allergic reaction, anaphylaxis, and acute dystonic reaction.

    • Side
    • Effects: Drowsiness, coordination disturbances, hypotension,
    • palpations, tachycardia, bradycardia, thickening of bronchial secretion, and
    • paradoxical excitement in pediatric patients. Rapid administration may cause
    • seizures in pediatrics.

    • Contraindications:
    • Do
    • not use in patients taking MAO inhibitors, newborns, nursing mothers, or those
    • with hypersensitivity to diphenhydramine.

    • Dosage
    • and Route:  Adult- 10 to 50 mg IM or slow IV every 6 to 8
    • hours, up to 400 mg/day
    • Pediatrics- 1 to 2 mg/kg slow IV or IO, up to 50mg
  14. Ondansetron
    • Common
    • Name: Zofran

    • Description:
    • A
    • selective serotonin receptor which is present on the vagus nerve terminals and
    • in chemoreceptor trigger zone for vomiting located in the CNS.

    • Classification:
    • Antiemetic

    • Indications:
    • Used
    • for nausea and vomiting

    • Side
    • Effects: Hypotension, tachycardia, constipation, elevated
    • liver enzymes, CNS depression

    • Contraindications:
    • do
    • not use in patient with hypersensitivity to ondansetron

    • Dosage
    • and Route: Adult- 4mg slow IV bolus over 2 to 5 minutes every 4 to 6 hours

    • Pediatrics- 0.1mg/kg slow IV bolus every 4 to
    • 6 hours
  15. Thiamine
    • Common
    • Name: Betaxin

    • Description:
    • plays
    • a vital role in carbohydrate metabolism

    • Classification:
    • Vitamin
    • (B)

    • Indications:
    • Used
    • for altered mental status, delirium tremens, and hypoglycemia

    • Side
    • Effects: Hypotension, anxiety, nausea, vomiting, angioedema

    • Contraindications:
    • do
    • not use in patients with hypersensitivity to intravenous thiamine.

    • Dosage
    • and Route: adults only- 100mg slow IV injected over
    • 1 to 2 minutes

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