Ch.1 Fundamentals of Nucleic Acid Biochemistry: An Overview

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Ch.1 Fundamentals of Nucleic Acid Biochemistry: An Overview
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2014-04-05 21:32:44
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Fundamentals Nucleic Acid Biochemistry An Overview
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Buckingham & Flaws Ch.1 Fundamentals of Nucleic Acid Biochemistry: An Overview
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  1. nucleotides
    Unit of nucleic acid compised of a phosphorylated ribose sugar and a nitrogen base

    • 4 bases in DNA and RNA
    • *adenine
    • *cytosine
    • *guanine
    • *thymine
    • *uracile

    Four nucleotide building blocks of DNA are molecules of about 700 kilodaltons (kd; one dalton is equal to the atomic mass of 1/12 of the 12 carbon isotope).

    consists of a five-carbon sugar, the first carbonof which is covalently joined to a nitrogen base and the fifth carbon to a phosphate moiety
  2. nitrogen base
    Planar carbon-nitrogen ring structure that comprises part of a nucleoside

    •  
    • Amine and ketone substitutions as well as the single or double bonds within the rings distinguish the four bases that comprise the majority of DNA
  3. deoxyribose
    sugar derived from ribose by replacing a hydroxyl group with hydrogen 
  4. phosphodiesterbond
    Covalent attachment of the hydroxyl oxygen of one phosphorylated ribose (or deoxy ribose) sugar to the phosphate phosphorous of the next.

    The phosphodiester backbones of the two nucleic acid chains form the helix. Nitrogen bases are oriented toward the center where the hydrogen bonds with homologous bases to stabilize the structure.

    Two hydrogen bonds form between adenine and thymine.

    Three hydrogen bonds form between guanine and cytosine.
  5. Johann Friedrich Miescher 
    published a paperon nuclein, the viscous substance extracted from cell nuclei and isolatedwhite blood cells out of seepage collected from discarded surgical bandages.
  6.  James Watson and Francis Crick.
    were the first to describe double helical structure of DNA (Fig. 1-1)
  7. nucleoside
    unit of nucleic acid comprised of a ribose sugar and a nitrogen base
  8. pyrimidines
    Nitrogen bases with a singlering structure (thymine, cytosine) are pyrimidines.
  9. purines
    Bases with a double ring structure (guanine, adenine) are purines.
  10. Numbering of the positions in the nucleotide molecule
    Numbering of the positions in the nucleotide molecule starts with the ring positions of the nitrogen base, designated C or N 1, 2, 3, etc.

    The carbons of the ribose sugarare numbered 1' to 5', distinguishing the sugar ring positions from those of the nitrogen base rings

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