Biol 3

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Author:
napoleon
ID:
26941
Filename:
Biol 3
Updated:
2010-07-15 18:52:38
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Biol CLO
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Description:
Biol Class 3
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  1. [Endocrine]
    Exocrine:
    • = ducted glands
    • (secret to enter world, GI)
    • EXTERIOR WORLD & EPITHELIAL
  2. [Endocrine]
    Endocrine:
    • = non ducted
    • internal = blood
    • endothelial
  3. [Hormones]
    Peptides:
    • (made up by AA) vary in size
    • - by and large = hydrophilic (dictate type of receptor)
    • - membrane bound receptor
    • - quick/quicker response
  4. [Hormones]
    Steroids:
    • = made from cholesterol
    • - hydrophobic (can cross memb)
    • - intercellular receptors
    • - slow response
  5. Pituitary Gland:
    • (2 glands... gland ½ stuck together)
    • GnRH → gondotrophin rel h. (receive from hypothal)

    [portal sys] hypothal rel → rel factors

    (anterior) hypoth conductor of hormones being rel
  6. hypothalamus scheme --
  7. hypothal hormone casade --
  8. CVS
    ("big highways" diff cars diff)
    FUNCTION:
    • - transport nutrients
    • - waste products
    • - immuneo
    • - transport hormones
  9. CVS
    COMPONENTS (3):
    HEART = pump blood (generate bl & pressure gradient)

    • CONDUCTING SYS = (expedite traffic & direct everything) - distribute
    • 1. arterial = pressure gradient
    • 2. venous = skeletal muscle contraction

    • BLOOD =
    • 1. plasma = liquid
    • 2. formed elements = RBC; WBC; platelets
  10. Heart
    • RA - right atrium
    • vena cava
    • tricuspid (R. atrioventicular valve)
    • right ventricle -- pulmonary A. & pulmonary semilunar valve

    • LA - left atrium
    • pulmonary v.
    • bicuspid (mitral)

    • LV
    • aorta
  11. Fetal diff in heart:
    • ductus arteriosus: connection b/w pulmon a. (&/ pumping) aorta
    • ductus venosus: by pass liver
    • foramen ovale: push bl → LV
  12. Cardiac Cycle: SYSTOLE
    • - contract ventricles V
    • - relax A
    • |→ close AV valve
    • |→ open semilunar
  13. Cardiac cycle: DIASTOLE
    • - relax V
    • - contract A
    • |→ open AV valve
    • |→ close semilunar
  14. Cardiac Cycle:
  15. Signal of cardiac cycle:
  16. Nodal Cells =
    (connected to norm cardiac tissue)
  17. Muscle cells =
  18. Troponin:
    • tropomin + Ca2+
    • = move troponin off of myosin binding sites on actin
  19. Blood Vessels (3):
    • Arteries = high pressure, w/ losts of muscle = TONE
    • Arterioles = 1o control of pressure at cap
    • Capillaries = thinnest basement memb & endothelial tissue;
    • exchange of nutrients & waste products
    • Veins = low pressure & return blood to heart
  20. Capillary bed:
    • arterioles = control profusion of bl into cap

    ↑# cap = ↓R
  21. pressure through vessels (graph)
    • pulsative → laminar flow
  22. Flow through Cap:
    • Diffusion
    • hydrostatic P = pressure due to flow of bloood
    • osmotic/ oncotic P = due to the "stuff" inside

    • always have some behind ➜ edema
  23. Lympathic:
    thoracic duct = largest lymph vessel (pick up extra liq)

    • - what provides force for liquid?
    • unidirectional flow of liquid (muscle mvmt)

    • Lymph node = "watch post"
    • (scanning for foreign to attack) (B & T cells)
  24. Blood (2 parts):
    • Plasma = (soluble in our H2O)
    • proteins (→ albumin, compliment), H2O, salts

    • Formed Elements = derived from bone marrow → erythropoeitic & stem cells
    • - erythrocytes, leuk, and platelets
  25. RBC → Hb
  26. Platelets:
    • - Vit K = make in gut by bact
    • - granular
    • - no nucleus
    • - needed for clotting
  27. [platelets]
    facilitate formation of clot:
    Fibrin (fibrinogen = inactive form)

    clot = thrombus

    free floating clot = embolus

    homeostasis = keeping blood in blood vessels
  28. [Immune Sys]
    Leukocytes:
    • = WBC
    • B-cells = stay & mature in bone marrow; Ab prod (plasma cells)
    • T-cells = grow up/ mature in thymus gland
    • - [CD4+; CD8+; T-cell receptor]
  29. T-cells =
    mature in thymus gland

    • CD4+ = (conductors; direct) direct immune sys
    • CD8+ = cytotoxic T-cells = kill infected cells
    • T-cell receptor = recognize specific pept. bond by MHC I/II
  30. T-cell receptor:
    MHC I - expressed or most cells NOT RBC; CD8+ recognize & respond

    MHC II - expressed on APC (antigen presenting cells) [→ B cell, monocytes/macro, dendritic cells]; CD4+ recognize & respond
  31. MHC II:
    • Monocytes
    • macrophage - APC & phagocytic

    • Grandocytes
    • Neutrophils - phagocytic & produce reactive oxygen species (ROS); peroxide
    • Eosinophils - parositic infections; allergic rxn
    • Basophils - allergic

    [named after what stains attach to]
  32. [immune sys]
    INNATE
    = nonspecific

    • skin
    • stomach acid
    • lysozyme
    • compliment = 20 prot • general pattern
    • granulocytes
    • macrophages
  33. [immune sys]
    HUMORAL
    • = specific
    • recognize specific antigen

    • Ab
    • 1. bind/ present function
    • 2. signal for opsonization
    • 3. signal for compliment

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