chap 5 Normal phonological development

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chap 5 Normal phonological development
2014-04-06 15:15:35

445 phonology
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  1. perlinguistic behavior
    all vocalizaitions prior to first words
  2. phonological development
    acquisition of speech sound form and function within the lang
  3. speech sound development
    gradual articulatory mastery of speech sounds within a given lang (measurable)
  4. development of the respiratory system
    • breathing goes from rapid breathing (30-80 bpm) at birth to slower breathing (20-30 bpm) at age 3-20 bpm for age 8
    • size of respiratory system changes significantly from birth to adulthood
  5. primary and secondary functions
    • prim=life support of breathing and eating
    • second=include articulation of speech sounds in addition to life support (comes with maturity)
  6. what do the organs of the respiratory system do
    ensure that the oxygen enters our bodies and carbon dioxide leaves our bodies
  7. what does the respiratory tract do
    • it is the path of air from the nose to the lungs
    • there are two sections of respiratory tract:
    •     -upper resp tract=nostrils, nasal cavities, pharynx, epiglottis
    •     -lower=trachea, larynx, bronchi, bronchioles, lungs
    • as air moves through resp tract it is warmed, moistened and filtered
  8. what mechanisms mature after birth
    • buccal area=swallowing=chewing/swallowing
    • layrnx (arytenoid cartilages and anterior portion of cricoid cartilage) are larger in proportion to the mechanism limiting speech
    • stablization of the pharyngeal airway (development of posture)
  9. when do additional changes occur
    • after age 1 changes occur in growth of speech mechanism
    • enlargement of skul and laryngeal areas (growth occurs in posterior and vertical direction which allows for more space)
    •     -more space means more mobility
    •     -more mobility means speech production
  10. what is the perceptual development good for
    • beginning of sorting sounds and developing relational meaning with the sounds 
    • newborns can distinguish speech form non-speech, and can also distinguish among speech sounds within a couple months of birth, infants can distinguish speech in their native lang from speech in other langs
  11. categorical perception
    • the tendency to hear speech soudns merely as members of a phonemic category (category of z or p sounds etc)
    •     -sounds within a category are heard as being rather similar to each other
    •     -sounds from different categories, are preceived as quite different
  12. perceptual constancy
    ability to identify same sound with different speakers and in changing environments
  13. perception of phonemic contrasts
    association of minimal pairs to signal word meaning differences found to occur at different times
  14. prelinguistic stages
    • 1. reflecive crying and vegetative sounds (0-2) months, sounds of discomfort
    • 2. cooing and laughter (2-4 m), sounds of comfort
    • 3. vocal play (4-6 m) manipulating pitch (to produce squeals and growls), loudness and also manipulating tract closures to produce friction nosises, nasal murmurs, rasberries and snorts
    • 4. cononical babbling (6+)
    •     -reduplicating babbling-similar strings of sounds (same consonant, different vowels)
    •     -variegated babbling-consonants and vowels
    •     -babbling-extended sounds that are chopped up rhythmically by oral articulations into syllable like sequences, opening and closing their jaws, lips and tongue, the range of sounds produced are heard as stop like and glide like. frics, affrics, and liquids are more rarely heard, and clusters are even rarer. vowels tend to be low and open at least int he beginning
    • prosody begins to occur
    • 5. Jargon (10+) stings of babbled utterances, beginning to recognize words
  15. prosodic feature development
    • elements that occur across segments that are used to influence what we say
    •     -is the rhythm, stress and intonation
    •     -may reflect various features of the speaker or the utterance, the emotional stat of the speaker, the form the utterance, the presences of irony or sarcasm, empahsis, contract and focus or other elements of lang that may not be encoded by grammar or choice of vocabulary (through adulthood)
  16. underextensions and overextensions
    • under=only my dog can be named willie
    • over-only men with beards can be a dad
  17. when is the rate of vocab acquisition accelerated
    in the third year and beyond
  18. linguistic phase
    • occurs around the end of the first year beginning with the first meaningful word
    •     -first word is used consistently in context and is related to an adult like word
    •     -proto words/vocables/quasi words: vocalizations used consistently by child in a certain context without a recognizable adult model
    • during the second year word combos begin to appear along with contrastive stress
    • in some cases, early multiple unit utterances can be seen as combos of individual naming actions that might as well have occurred alone, mommy and hat combine to make mommy hat
  19. presystemic stage
    • contrastive words are acquired
    •     -item learning stage=acquiring word forms in unanalyzed units as whole words
    •     -system learning stage=acquiring the phonological principals of the system
  20. holophrastic period
    • the early part of the item learning stage, child uses one word to indicate a whole idea, up means daddy pick me up
    • piaget says child is in sensorimotor stage
  21. telegraphic stage
    pattern of leaving out most grammatical/functional morphemes
  22. when do children first begin to used grammatical elements
    • at about the age of two
    • this includes finite auxiliaries (is, was), verbal tense agreement affixes (ed, s), nominative pronouns (i, she) complementizers (that, where), and determiners (the, a)
    • process is usually somewhat gradual in which the more telegraphic patterns alternate with adult or adult like forms sometimes in adjacent utterances
    •     -shes gone. her gone school
    •     -he's kicking a beach ball. her climbing up the ladder there
    • year and a half sentences get longer and gram elements are less often omitted
  23. segmental form development
    2 characteristics
    • phonetic variability=unstable pronounciations of the child's first words
    • limitation of syllable structures and segmental productions used=usually cv, vc, cvc, but there can be other combos as well
  24. implications for therapy
    • sounds first appear in the initial postition of words and are easier to produce
    • anterior stops and nasals are acquired earlier, even with phonological disorders
    • the liquid r nearly always appears in the final position of words and should be easier to pronounce than the r in the initial position
    • k and g issues indicate learning initial g before k in final position
  25. individual acquistion patterns that can help with therapy:
    salience factor
    children will acqurie words that contain sounds within their phonological inventories
  26. individual acquistion patterns that can help with therapy:
    avoidance factor
    • children will avoid words that contain sounds not in their inventory
    • preference for certain sounds over others
    •     -falling intonation=is more prevalent because it is easier to produce, but rising intonation also noted
    •     -prosodic variation=is the most important aspect of communication during this stage because it indicates
    •         -meaning
    •         -differences as syntactic function
    •     -signals joint participation between child and caregiver
  27. the preschool child
    • expressive lang 50-300 words
    • receptive lang 200-1500 words
    • more 2 word to 3 word utterances
    • beginning of syntactic development browns stages i, ii
    • words are primarily nouns, verbs
    • intelligibility or inventory of speech sounds limited
  28. the preschool child
    36-72 m
    • browns stages iii, iv, v develop
    • around 5 should be able to:
    •     -express vocab 2200 words
    •     -receptive 9600 words
    •     -word types include, nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, negation/affirmation
    •     -phonological system almost complete
  29. segmental form development:
    • mastered by age 3
    • many vowels develop as the vocab mature and more vowel sounds are needed
    • usually first vowel sounds develeped:
    •     -bug, beet, book, bit
  30. segmental form development:
    development is a range meaning that every person acquires consonants at different stages.
  31. phonological processes
    syllable structure processes
    • tendency to reduce words to cv structures
    • usually between ages 1.6 to 4
    • reduplication seen briefly before 1.6 final consonant deletion disappears around age 4 although some studies say 2.5
    • cluster reduction seen by some into age 8-9 years but in different stages
    •     -deletion of toal cluster
    •     -reduction of one cluster member, dum for drum
    • cluster performed but one member is changed/substitutied, tweet for treat
    • normal production
  32. epenthesis
    insertion of sound segment into the word (paleez for please) which simplifies the more difficult construction
  33. substitution process
    • stopping-replace stops for affs, and frics
    • fronting-replace pals and velars for alveolar consonants
    • gliding-r and l change
  34. assimilation process
    • changes in which a sound becomes similar to or is influenced by a neighboring sound at of an utterance
    • often seen in 1-2 year olds
    •     -velar harmony: gawk for dog, kak for take
    •     -regressive assimilation: bawp for stop, babu for table
  35. prosodic feature development
    • emerges with 2 word utterances
    • contrastive stress: one syllable within the 2 word phrase becomes more prominent or stressed
  36. tone unit
    • where the pause between words, one is louder and convey meaning
    •     -daddy (pause) eat
    •     -daddy (shorter pause) eat
    •     -daddy eat (no pause with equal stress)
    •     -daddy eat (first word stressed)
  37. eld considerations
    • sounds common only to L1 and not L2
    • interference/transfer from l1 to l2
    •     -vietnamese vowels and consonants
    • arrangement of sounds or order of sounds in l1 v l2
  38. eld consideration
    rhythmic differences
    stress, intonation, and duration from l1
  39. eld considerations
    code switching/code mixing
    alternating from l1 to l2
  40. eld considerations
    language loss/subtractive bilingualism
    l2 develops higher skills with l1 not being taught or learned at higher level
  41. consonant clusters
    • usually develop between 3.6 and 5.6 where cluster reduction, lengthening and epenthesis occurs
    •     -studies show that even 9 year olds may not have adult like consonant cluster reduction
  42. phonology and literacy
    • phonological awareness, emerging literacy and phonological disorders
    • the link between learning to speak and learning to read is strong
    • early lang development, especially perceptual processing of sound is one of the strongest perdictors of later reading acquisition
  43. metaphonology
    • the childs conscious awareness of the sounds within a lang, including how the sounds are combined in the lang to form words
    • phonological awareness and reading acquisition: strong phonological skills lead to good reading
  44. phonological awareness
    • awareness of the sound structure of phonological structure of a spoken word in contrast to written words
    • the ability to detect and manipulate sound segments, moving sounds around in words, combining certain sounds together or deleting sounds
    • phonological uses auditory input or the ability to hear sounds in spoken words in contrast to seeing them in writing
  45. phonemic awareness
    is different than phonological awareness it refers only to the phoneme level and requires the understanding that words are made up of individual sounds
  46. phonological processing
    the use of sound of lang to process verbal info in oral or written form that requires working and long term memory
  47. elements of phonological processing
    coding: involves memory skills where they must determine which sound in stored memory is to be used with a new word
  48. elements of coding
    • phonetic coding: occurs in working memory
    • phonological coding: occurs in stored memory
    •    -matching written symbols to pronounciation of the written word, pronounciation of written word is matched to pronounciation of words in memory, pronounciation of words in memory are linked with memory of meaning
  49. 4 types of phonological processing that demonstrate literacy strength v difficulty
    • memory span-new strings of verbal info
    • recall of verbal info-contrasting with nonverbal
    • articulation rate
    • rapid naming
  50. awareness
    • breaking down words into smaller units
    • syllable awareness: requires understanding that a word can be divided into syllables
  51. phoneme awareness
    • ability to manipulate sounds such as
    •     -phonome detection
    •     -phoneme matching
    •     -phoneme isolation
    •     -phoneme completion
    •     -phoneme blending
    •     -phoneme deletion
    •     -phoneme sementation
    •     -phoneme reversal
    •     -phoneme manipulation