Psyc chapt 16 text

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Psyc chapt 16 text
2014-04-13 14:44:34

chapter 16 text
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  1. abnormal psychology
    • the scientific study of psychological disorders
    • thought to occur in at least 22% of adults in canada every year
  2. general paresis
    • mental condition caused by syphilis
    • caused delusions, halluncinations, inappropriate moods, full blown dementia, seizures and death
    • males 20-40
    • showed that madness could be symptoms of an underlying physical illness
  3. moral treatment
    • mental health reform following the discovery of syphilis
    • which led to more humane treatment of the mentally ill
  4. medical model
    • approach to understanding and treating mental illness
    • encourages a search for patterns in the symptoms people present with
    • search of possible causes
  5. defining psychological abnormality: the 4 d's
    • deviance - behaviours, thoughts, emotions that differ from a society ideas
    • distress - actions must also cause distress
    • dysfunction - hurt daily functioning
    • danger - to themselves or others (seems to be the exception rather than the rule, most would never hurt others and pose no immediate danger to themselves or anyone else)

    All rely heavily on social norms and values
  6. classification system
    list of disorders with descriptions of the symptoms and guidelines for determining when individuals should be assigned to the categories
  7. international classification of diseases
    the system used by most countries to classify psychological disorders; published by the world health organization and currently in its tenth edition
  8. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM)
    • the leading classification system for psychological disorders in north america
    • gather information of their clients based on 5 dimensions (axes)
  9. diagnosis
    a clinicians determination that a person's cluster of symptoms represents a particular disorder
  10. comorbidity
    the condition in which a person's symptoms qualify him for two or more diagnoses
  11. model or paradigm
    a big idea about how things work
  12. neuroscience model
    • view abnormal behavior as an illness brought about by a malfunctioning brain
    • ex. Huntington - loss of brain region called striatum
    • ex. depress - insuffictient noepi and serotonin (maybe cortisol as well)
    • genetics (alzhiemers) and viral infections (schizophrenia, mood and anxiety disorders) could play a role
  13. congnitive - behavioural model
    prosoe that psychological disorders result largely from a combination of problematic learned behaviours and dysfunctional cognitive processes.
  14. the behavioural perspective
    • learning principles to explain human functioning
    • abnormal behaviours acquired through learning (classical, operant and modelling)
    • can be tested
    • helpful to people with - specific fears, compulsive behavriours, social deficits, intellectual disabilities and a wide range of other problems
  15. the cognitive perspective
    • when people display abnormal patters of functioning, cognitive problems are to blame
    • maladative beliefs and illogical thinking processes
    • eg. thinking your a failure
    • eg. illogical thinking patters than are common in the depressed - selective percetion: only seeing the negative, magnification: exaggerating the importance of undesirable events, overgeneralization: drawing broad negative conclusions on the basis of a single insignificant event
    • thought it is a key factor
  16. psychodynamic model
    • frued, childs development may lead to non maturing and fixation
    • look for explanations outside of biological processes
  17. object relations
    • group of psychodynamic theorisits
    • believe people are motivated primarily by a need to establish relationships with others, know as objects.
    • problems in early relationships may result in abnormal development and psychological problems
  18. socio-cultural model
    • abnormal behaviour is best understood in light of the social, cultural, and family forces brought to bear on an individual
    • Factors: social change, socio-economic class, cultural factors, social networks and supports, family systems
  19. social change: the socio-cultural model
    when a society undergoes major change - urbanization: usually show a rise in mental disorders
  20. socio-economic class: the socio-cultural model
    lower socio-economic class have higher rates of psychological abnormalilty expecially severe abnormality.
  21. cultural factors: the socio-cultural model
    • values of that culture and the external pressures faced by members of the culture
    • women at least 2 times as likely as men to be diagnosed with depressive and anxiety disorders
    • having a strong, culturally-rich contest in which to develop has a positive effect on mental health
    • religion and positive mental health also related
  22. social networks and support: the socio-cultural model
    people who lack social support are more likely to become depressed
  23. family systems theory: the socio-cultural model
    • a theory holindg that each family has its own implicit rules, relationship structure, and communication patters that shape the behaviour of the individual members
    • force individual members of the family to react in ways that otherwise seem abnormal
    • if act normal (aka against family norms) creates turmoil
  24. developmental psycopathology
    • the study of how problem behaviours evolve as a function of a person's genes and early experiences and how these early issues affect the person at later life stages
    • identify risk factors
    • try to identify factors that can help children avoid or recover from such outcomes
    • look at genetics, early environmental influences and their own psychological processes
  25. risk factoris
    biological and environmental factors that contribute to problem outcomes
  26. equifinality
    the idea that different children can start from different points and wind up at the same outcome
  27. multifinality
    the idea that children can start from the same point and wind up at any number of different outcomes
  28. conduct disorder
    • a disorder of childhood and adolescence characterized by repeated violations of others' rights, displays of agression, and destructive behaviour.
    • many roads can lead to this behavriour. a difficult temperament, experienced poor parenting, or devolped poor social skills
    • example of equifinality
  29. resilience
    the ability to recover from or avoid the serious effects of negative circumstances
  30. depression
    • mood disorder
    • a persistent sad state in which life seems dark and its challenges overwhelming
  31. mania
    • mood disorder
    • a persistent state of euphoria or frenzied energy
  32. major depressive disorder
    • a disorder characterized by a depressed mood that is significantly disabling and is not caused by such factors as drugs or general medical condition
    • 5% of adults diagnosed with
    • women twice as likely
  33. dysthymic disorder
    a less disabling but chronic form of depression
  34. bipolar disorder
    • a mood disorder in which periods of mania alternate with periods of depression
    • 1-2.6% of all adults suffer
    • equally common in men/woman, people of all socioeconomic classes and ethnic groups
    • evidence for irregularities in the electrically-charged ions that enable neurons to fire and transmit messages
  35. cyclothymic disorder
    a less severe but chronic form of bipolar disorder
  36. potential reasons for high rates of depression found in women
    • Women greater tendency to seek assistance
    • men's tendency to deny or pay less attention to their feelings
    • women
    • s greater likelihood of carrying the stress of multiple roles as parent, spouse, and employee
  37. characteristics of depression
    • between 6-16 percent of people who suffer from severe depression commit suicide
    • lack of drive, depressed emotional state
    • all stuff you know
  38. twin studies and depression
    • monozygotic (identical twins) - if one had depression 46% chance the other would have it
    • Dizygotic (fraternal) - only 20% chance
  39. How do neuroscientists explain depression
    • low levels of seretonin and norepi.
    • high levels of cortisol
  40. How do cognitive-behavioural theorists explain depression
    • learned helplessness
    • negative thinking
    • cognitive triad
    • automatic thoughts
  41. learned helplessness
    • people become depressed when they think
    • 1. that they no longer have control over the rewards and punishments in their lives
    • 2. that they themselves are responsible for this helpless state
  42. attribution-helplessness theory
    • revised newer version of learned helplessness
    • when people view events to be beyond their control, they ask themselves why this is so
    • if they attribute their present lack of control to some internal cause that is both global (wide ranging) and stable (a deficiency that will continue for a long time), they may well feel helpless to prevent future negative outcomes and experience depression
  43. negative thinking
    • dysfunctional attitudes, errors in thinking, the cognitivie triad and automatic thoughts are the key to the clinical syndrome (depression)
    • beck
  44. cognitive triad
    • a pattern of thinking in which individuals repeatedly interpret their experiences, themselves, and their futures in negative ways that lead them to feel depressed.
    • beck
  45. automatic thoughts
    • depressed people experience
    • steady train of unpleasant thoughts that keep suggesting to them that they are inadequate and that their situations is hopless
    • specific upsetting thoughts that arise unbidden
    • not sure if its a cause or symptom of depression
    • beck
  46. how do socio-cultural theorisits explain depression
    • depression is usually triggered by outside stressors
    • people who are seperated or divorced 3 times more likely to be depressed than married counterpart and 2 times more likely than never married counterpart
    • peoples lives who are isolated and without intimacy seem particularly likely to become dpressed at times of stress
  47. anxiety disorders
    • most common mental disorders in canada
    • 12% of the adult population suffer
  48. generalized anxiety disorder
    • an anxiety disorder in which people feel excessive anxiety and worry under most circumstances
    • typically feel restless, keyed up, on edge, tire easily, have difficulty concentrating, suffer from muscle tension and have sleep problems
    • 4% in any given year
  49. How do cognitive theorists explain generalized anxiety disorder
    • in part by dysfunction assumptions - broad big assumptions about life, like everyone should like me
    • Can't tolerate levels of uncertainty - intolerance of uncertainty theory
    • hold assumptions that they are always in imminent danger
  50. new wave cognitive explanations for generalized anxiety disorder
    explanations that build on the notions of ellis and beck and their emphasis on danger
  51. how do neuroscientists explain generalized anxiety
    • gaba - inhibitory
    • malfunction in gaba's inhibitory function.
    • brain circuit that produces anxiety reactions includes prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate and amygdala
  52. social anxiety disorder
    • an anxiety disorder in which people feel severe, persistenet, and irrational fears of social or performance situations in which embarrassment may occur
    • may be narrow (fear of talking in public) or may be broad ( general fear of functioning poorly infront of others)
    • often missinterpreted as snobbery, lack of interest or hostility
    • poor people 50% more likely to display a social phobia
  53. phobia
    • a persistent and unreasonable fear of a particular object, activity, or situation
    • though to be learned through classical conditioning (behaviourists)
    • aviodance behaviours are learned though operant conditioning - Mowrer's two-factor theory of phobia learning
    • potentially also learned through modelling - observation and imitation
  54. panic attacks
    periodic, discrete bouts of panic that occur suddenly, rach a peak within 10 minutes and gradually pass
  55. panic disorder
    • an anxiety disorder characterised by recurrent unpredictable panic attacks that occur without apparent provocation
    • experience a change in their thinking or behaviour as a result of the attacks
  56. agoraphobia
    • panic disorder is often accompanied by it
    • a phobia that makes people avoid public places or situations in which escape might be difficult or help unavailable should panic symptoms develop
  57. neuroscientists and panic attack
    • panic attacks are produced by a brain circuit consiting of such areas as the amygdalam hypothalamus and locus ceruleus
    • potentually produce an excess in norepinephrine
  58. obsessions
    persistent thoughts, ideas, impulses, or images that seem to invade a person's consciousness
  59. compulsion
    repetitive and rigid behaviors or mental acts that people feel compleled to perform to prevent or reduce anxiety
  60. obsessive-compulsive disorder
    • when obsessions or compulsions are severe, are viewed by the person as excessive or unreasonable, cause great distress, consume considerable time, or interfere with daily functions
    • compulsions represent a yielding to obsessive doubts, ideas or urges. Sometimes serve to control obsession. Reduce the anxiety produced by obsesive thoughts
  61. What forms do obsessions take
    • wishes (repeated wishes that ones spouse would die)
    • impulses (repeated urges to yell out obscenities at work or in church)
    • images (fleeting visions of forbidden sexual scenes)
    • doubts (concerns that one has made or will make a wrong decision)
  62. how do cognitive-behavioural theorisits explain obsessive compulsive disorder
    • after repeated accidental associations, they believe that the action is brining them good luck or actually chaing the situations - perform the action more and becomes a key method of avoiding or reducing anxiety
    • people with obsessive compulsive disorder experience intrusive thoughts more often, and gain a reduction in anxiety after using neutralizing techniques (aka compulsions)
  63. How do neuroscientists explain obsessive-compulsive disorder
    • two lines of research
    • 1. low levels of serotonin
    • 2. abnormal levels of functioning in certain brain regions. orbitofrontal cortex and caudate nuclei.
    • part of a brain circuit that usually converts sensory information into thoughts and actions
    • also potentually the thalamus, cingulate cortex, striatum's caudate nucleus and the amydala
  64. acute stress disorder
    • an anxiety disorder in which fear and related symptoms are experienced soon after a traumatic event and last less than a month
    • 80% develop into PTSD
  65. what causes a stress disorder
    • biological and genetic factors
    • damage to hippocampus
    • personality
    • childhood experiences
    • social support
  66. schizophrenia
    • a mental disorder characterized by disorganized thoughts, lack of contact with reality, and sometimes hallucinations
    • experience psychosis
    • symptoms can be grouped into - positive symptoms, negative symptoms, psychomotor symptoms
  67. psychosis
    loss of contact with reality
  68. positive symptoms
    • schizophrenia
    • symptoms that seem to represent pathological excesses in behaviour, including delusions, disorganized thinking and speech, hallucinations, and inappropriate affect
  69. delusions
    • blatantly false beliefs that are firmly held despite evidence to the contrary
    • delusions of persections are the most commin in schizophrenia
  70. loose associations or derailment
    a common thought disorder of schizophrenia, characterized by rapid shifts from one topic to another
  71. hallucinations
    • imagined sights, sounds or other sensory events experience as if they were real
    • schizophrenia
    • auditory most common for schizo
  72. inappropriate affect
    • schizophrenia symptom
    • emotions that are unsuited to the situation
  73. negative symptoms of schizophrenia
    • sypmtoms that seem to reflect pathological deficits, including poverty of speech, flat affect (little shown emotion), loss of volition and social withdrawal
    • avolation - drained of energy and interest in normal goals
  74. psychomotor symptoms
    • schizophrenia
    • move more awkwardly, or make odd grimaces and gestures
    • gestures often seem to have a private, perhaps ritualistic or magical purpose
  75. catatonia
    • extreme psychomotor symptoms of schizophrenia, including catactonic stupor, catatonic rigidity, and catatonic posturing
    • waxying flexibility - they maintain indefinitely postures into which they have been placed by someone else
  76. different subtypes of schizophrenia
    • 1. paranoid - delusions and possible auditory hallucinations. no thought disorder and delusions center on being persecuted or on jealousy
    • 2. disorganized - the combination of disordered thoughts and flat affect characterize this subtype
    • 3. catatonic - characterized by immobility or by agitated, purposeless movements
    • 4. undifferentiated - mixing pot of symptoms
    • 5.  residual - symptoms are present but at a low level of intensity
  77. dopamine hypothesis
    • explanation for schizophrenia
    • too much dopaminergic neuron actvity
  78. antipsychotic drugs
    medications that help remove the symptoms of schizophrenia
  79. abnormal brain structures and schizophrenia
    • enlarged ventricles, relatively small temporal lobes and frontal lobes, and abnormal blood flow in certain areas
    • some studies hav eliked to abnormalitites of the hippocampus, amygdala and thalamus
  80. somatoform disorder
    patter of physical complaints with largely psychosocial causes; types include conversion disorder, somatization disorder, pain disorder associated with psychological factors, hypochonriasis, and body dysmorphic disorder

  81. dissociative disorder
    a psychological disorder characterized by major loss of memory without a clear physical cause; types include, dissociateive amnesia, dissociative fugue and dissociative identity disorder
  82. dissociative amnesia
    • unable to recall important information about their lives
    • often triggered by an traumatic event
    • "repressed memories"
  83. dissociative fugue
    forget personal identity, flee to an entirely different location and start a new life
  84. dissociative identity disorder
    • multiple personality disorder
    • each unique
    • women receive this diagnosis at least 3 times more than men