Bio2020 Midterm 1

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Bio2020 Midterm 1
2014-04-22 22:05:51
Bio2020 Midterm
Bio2020 Midterm 1
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  1. What are the 4 primary types of tissues?
    What are their primary functions?
    • - Epithelial tissue : covers
    • - Connective tissues : supports 
    • - Muscle tissue : produces movement.
    • - Nerve tissue : controls.
  2. Where are the primary tissues found in?
    • - Nervous tissue : brain; spinal cord; nerves.
    • - Muscle tissue : skeletal; cardiac; smooth.
    • - Epithelial : Lining of digestive tract organs and hollow organs ; skin surface.
    • - Connective : bones; tendons; fat and soft padding tissues.
  3. Epithelial Tissue (Epithelium)
    What do they form?
    What are the two main types?
    • - boundries.
    • - covering and lining epithelia (found on external and internal surfaces.) ; glandular epithelia (secretory tissue in glands)
  4. The epithelial tissue has 6 functions?
    What are the five characteristics of epithelial tissues?
    • - protection, absorption, filtration, excretion, secretion, sensory reception.
    • - polarity, specialized contacts, supported by connective tissues, avascular (bit innervated), can regenerate.
  5. Characteristics of epithelial tissue : Polarity 
    Cells have what?
    There are two type of surfaces?
    How do the two surfaces differ?
    • - polarity
    • - apical surface ( upper free ) exposed to exterior or cavity.
    • - Basal surface (lower, attached) 
    • - both differ in structure and function.
  6. Apical Surface of epithelial tissues.
    What do they have and why?
    Some have what?
    • - microvilli which is the brush border of intestinal lining. Helps increase surface area.
    • - Some have cilia (lining of trachea.)
  7. Basal surface of Epithelial Tissue :
    What does the noncellular basal lamina have?
    • - glycoprotein and collagen fibers, lies adjacent to basal surface.
    • - Selective filter which determines which molecules diffusing from underlying connective tissue are allowed to enter.
  8. Characteristics of Epithelial Tissue : Specialized Contancts.
    How do specialized contacts bind adjacent cells?
    - two lateral contacts : desmosomes and tight junctions.
  9. Characteristics of Epithelial Tissue: Connective Tissue Support.
    How are they all connected to each other?
    What's the reticular lamina; where's it found?
    What's the basement membrane? What does it do? What does it resists? What does it define?
    • - connective tissue.
    • - deep to basal lamina; network of collagen fibers.
    • - basal lamina + reticular lamina; reinforces epithelial sheet; resists stretching and tearing; defines epithelial boundary.
  10. Characteristics of Epithelial Tissue: Avascular but Innervated.
    What do epithelial tissues not have?
    How are they nourished?
    How are they supplied?
    • - no blood vessels.
    • - diffusion from underlying connective tissues.
    • - Supplied by nerve fibers.
  11. Characteristics of Epithelial Tissue: Regeneration.
    They have a high what?
    How are they stimulated by?
    This happen only if what?
    • - regenerative capacity.
    • - stimulated by loss of apical - basal polarity and lateral contacts. (some exposed to friction and some to hostile substances.)
    • - If adequate nutrients can replace lost cells by cell division.
  12. Classification of Epithelia.
    Epithelial tissues have two names and define.
    Their shape can be indicated in three ways and picture it.
    What about in stratified epithelia?
    • - Simple epithelia = single layer of cells.
    • - Stratifies epithelia = two or more layers of cells.

    • - Squamous, cuboidal, columnar.
    • - In stratified epithelia, epithelia classified by cell shape in apical layer.
  13. Classification of Epithelia : Simple Epithelia.
    Four functions?
    - absorption, secretion, filtration, very thin.
  14. Classification of Epithelia : Simple Squamous epithelium. 
    Describe it.
    What are the functions?
    Where is it located at?
    • - single layer. simplest of epithelia. 
    • - allows materials to pass by diffusion and filtration in sites where protection is not important; secretes lubricating substances in serosae.
    • - Kidney glomeruli, air sacs of lungs, lining of heart, blood vessels and lymphatic vessels, lining of ventral body cavity.
  15. Classification of Epithelia : Simple Cuboidal epithelium. 
    Describe it.
    • - single layer of cube like cells with large spherical central nuclei. 
    • - secretion and absorption.
    • - kidney tubules; ducts and secretory portions of small glands, ovary surface.
  16. Classification of Epithelia : Simple columnar epithelium.
    Describe it.
    • - single layer of tall cells with round to oval nucleus. 
    • - absorbs; secretion of mucus, enzymes, and other substances; ciliated type propels mucus by ciliary action.
    • - noncililated type lines most of the digestive tract, gall bladder and excretory ducts of some glands, ciliated variety lines small bronchi, uterine tubes, and some regions of the uterus.
  17. Classification of Epithelia : Pseudostratified columnar epithelium. 
    Describe it.
    • - single layer of cells of differing heights, some not reaching the free surface; nuclei seen at different levels; may contain mucus secreting cells and bear cilia.
    • - Secrete substances, particularly mucus; propulsion of mucus by ciliary action.
    • - nonciliated type in male's sperm carrying ductus of large glands; ciliated variety lines the trachea, most of the upper respiratory tract.
  18. Stratified Epithelial Tissues :
    How many cell layers?
    Direction of regeneration?
    Compared to simple epithelia?
    Major role?
    • - two or more cell layers.
    • - Regenration from bellow (basal cells divide, cells migrate to surface.)
    • - more durable than simple epithelia.
    • - Protection is major role.
  19. Stratified squamous epithelium.
    Most what?
    Located in places where...?
    Farthest away from basal layer are most likely...?
    • - widespread of stratified epithelia.
    • - located for wear and tear.
    • - farther from basal layer are less viable. (Away from the nutrient.)

    Free surface squamous ; deeper layers cuboidal or columnar.
  20. Stratified Squamous Epithelium.
    • - Thick membrane composed of several cell layers. Basal cells are cuboidal or columnar and metabolically active; surface cells are flattened (squamous). 
    • In the keratinized type, the surface cells are full of keratin and dead; basal cells are active in mitosis and produce the cells of the more superficial layers. 
    • - protects underlying tissues in areas subjected to abrasion.
    • - nonkeratinized type forms the moist lining of the esophagus, mouth and vagina; keratinized forms the epidermis of the skin, a dry membrane.
  21. Stratified cuboidal epithelium.
    How often are they found?
    Where are they found in?
    How thick are the cell layers?
    • - rare
    • - some sweat and mammary glands.
    • - typically two cell layers thick.
  22. Stratified columnar epithelium.
    How often are they found?
    Where are they found?
    Where do they also occur at?
    Only what layer is associated with this?
    • - limited distribution in body.
    • - small amounts in pharynx, male urethra and lining some glandular ducts.
    • - also occurs at transition areas between two other type os epithelia.
    • - only apical layer columnar.
  23. Glandular Epithelia 
    Define gland.
    How are they classified by?
    - one or more cells that makes and secretes an aqueous fluid called a secretion.

    • - classified by site of product release (endocrine or exocrine)
    • - Relative number of cells forming the gland (unicellular a.k.a goblet cells; or multicellular.)
  24. Endocrine Glands.
    What does ductless glands mean?
    What do they do?
    What do they target?
    How do they range?
    • - Ductless glands : secretions not released into a duct.
    • - Secrete (by exocytosis) hormones that travel through lymph or blood to their specific target organs.
    • - Target organs respond in some characteristic way (e.g., pancreas stimulated to release digestive enzymes.)
    • - Range from single cells to multicellular organs.
  25. Exocrine Glands.
    What are they? 
    How is it different from endocrine glands?
    Where does it secrete?
    • - Secretions released onto body surfaces (skin) or into body cavities.
    • - More numbers than endocrine glands
    • - Most secrete products into ducts.
    • - Examples include mucous, sweat, oil and salivary glands.
  26. Unicellular Exocrine glands .
    Name the two important unicellular glands?
    Found where?
    What do they produce?
    • - mucous cells and goblet cells.
    • - found in epithelial lining of intestinal and respiratory tracts. 
    • - All produce mucin, dissolves in water to form mucus.
  27. Multicellular Exocrine Glands.
    Composed of what?
    How are they usually surrounded by?
    • - a duct and a secretory unit.
    • - Usually surrounded by supportive connective tissue which supplies blood and nerve fibers. Also extends into and divides gland into lobes.
  28. Classification of Multicellular Glands.
    By Structure?
    By type of secretion?
    • - Structure  :
    • Simple glands (unbranched duct) or compound glands (branched duct).
    • Cells tubular, alveolar, or tubuloalveolal. 

    • - Type of Secretion :
    • Merocrine (secrete products by exocytosis as produced (e.g., sweat pancreas, salivary.)
    • Holocrine (accumulate products within then; a.k.a sebaceous glands.
    • Apocrine (accumulated products within but only apex ruptures - controversy is exists in humans.
  29. Connective Tissue :
    Why are these tissues different from other tissues?
    What are the four main classes?
    • - most abundant and widely distributed of primary tissues.
    • - Connective tissue proper, cartilage, bone, blood.
  30. What are the major functions of connective tissue?
    • - binding and support
    • - Protecting.
    • - Insulation.
    • - Storing reserve feul.
    • - Transporting substances (blood)
  31. Characteristics of connective tissue.
    Name the three characteristics that make connective tissues different for other primary tissues.
    • - Have mesenchyme (an embryonic tissue) as their common tissue of origin.
    • - Have varying degrees of vascularity (blood vessels)
    • - Have extracellular matrix. Connective tissue not composed mainly of cells. Largely nonliving extracellular matrix separates cells. ( So can bear weight, withstand tension, endure abuse.)
  32. Structural Elements of Connective Tissue:
    Name the three!
    Define group substance.
    What are the three types of fibers.
    Two ways to distinguish a cell?
    • - Ground substance, Fibers, Cells.
    • - Ground substance : unstructured material that fills space between cells; medium through which solutes diffuse between blood capillaries and cells.
    • - Collagen (strongest and most abundant type, provides high tensile strength.) ; Elastic Fibers ( networks that allow for stretch and recoil.) ; Reticular (Branch, forming networks that offer more "give." Abundant where connective tissue abuts other tissue types.)
    • - "Blast" cells (Immature form; mitotically active; secrete ground substances and fibers.) ; "Cyte" cells (Mature form; maintains matrix)
  33. Other cell types in connective tissues.
    There are four. What are they and define.
    • - Fat cells : store nutrients.
    • - White blood cells : neutrophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes. Tissue response to injury.
    • - Mast cells : initiate local inflammatory response against foreign microorganisms they detect.
    • - Macrophages : phagocytic cells that "eat" dead cells, microorganisms; function in immune system.
  34. Types of Connective Tissues : Connective Tissue Proper.
  35. Skin (Integumentary) 
    What are the two distinct regions? and explain.
    What's the Hypodermis a.k.a? Which layer compared to the skin? Not apart of what? What type of tissue does it mostly have and what's its function?
    What does it anchor?
    • - 1. Epidermis : superficial region, epithelial tissue.
    • - 2. Dermis : underlies epidermis, mostly fibrous connective tissue, vascularized.
    • - Hypodermis a.k.a superficial fascia; subcutaneous layer deep to the skin; Not part of skin but shares same function; Mostly adipose tissue that absorbs shock and insulates; anchors skin to underlying structures - mostly muscles.
  36. Epidermis.
    Name the four/five distinct layers and their importance (starting from the bottom)

    Name the four cell types.
    • - Stratum Basale: cell division and actively mitotic. Place where the hypodermis attaches to the dermis.
    • - Stratum spinosum: made up of dendritic cells which are responsible of cleaning things up. Melanocytes which are pigments.
    • - Stratum granulosum: last layer that has living cells. Layer where keratinization happens. 
    • - Stratum Lucidum: clear, only found in thick skin and dead keratin cells. 
    • - Stratum Corneum: 20-30 cell layers thick and made up of dead cells. Makes up 3/4 of epidermal thickness. 

    • - Dendrite (Langerhans) cells : immune responses, macrophage, arise from bone marrow. 
    • - Melanocyte : produces melanin/pigmentation.
    • - Keratinocytes : produce keratin (fibrous protein.
    • - Tactile(Merkel) cells : sensory cells.
  37. Cell Differentiation in Epidermis. 
    How can cells change from stratum basale to stratum corneum? 

    What does it control?
    What breaks down?
    What thickens?
    What results?
    Accomplished by specialized form of apoptosis.

    • - controlled cellular suicide.
    • - Nucleus and organelles break down 
    • - plasma membrane thickens.
    • - allows cells to slough off as dandruff and dander.
    • - Sheds ~ 50,000 cells every minute
  38. Dermis:
    Made up of what?
    Types of cells associated with it?
    Purpose of fibers?
    What does it contain?
    What two layers does it have?
    • - strong, flexible connective tissue
    • - Cells : fibroblasts, macrophages, and mast cells and white blood cells.
    • - Fibers in matrix bind body together. "Hiide used to make leather.
    • - Contains nerve fibers; blood and lymphatic vessels. Contains epidermal hair follicles; oil and sweat glands.
    • - two layers include papillary and reticular.
  39. Layers of the Dermis : Papillary layer.
    Made up of what?
    Purpose of loose tissue?
    Purpose of dermal papillae?
    • - areolar connective tissue with collagen and elastic fibers and blood vessels.
    • - Loose tissues : phagocytes can patrol for microorganisms.
    • - Superficial peglike projections.
  40. Layers of the Dermis : Reticular Layer 
    Has what?
    Purpose of collagen fibers? 
    What are cleavage lines?
    • - dense fibrous connective tissue (stretch and recoil)
    • - Collagen fibers provide strength and resiliency.
    • - Cleavage lines because most collagen fibers parallel to skin surface.
    • • externally invisible 
    • • important to surgeons
    • • incisions parallel to cleavage lines gap less and heal more readily.
  41. Skin markings : 
    What are flexure lines?
    Where is it visible at?
    What are Striae?
    What are blisters?
    • - dermal folds at or near joins.
    • - visible on hands, wrists, fingers, soles and toes.
    • - Striae: silvery white scars forms "stretch marks" cause would be dermal tears.
    • - Blisters : from acute, short-term trauma. Fluid-filled pocket that separates epidermal and dermal layers.
  42. What would be considered as appendages of the skin?
    • - Hairs and hair follicles
    • - Nails
    • - Sweat glands
    • - Sebaceous (oil) glands.
  43. Appendages of the Skin: Hair 

    What is it?
    Where is not located at?
    Name its functions.
    What causes hair pigmentation?
    • - dead keratinized cells of hard keratin.
    • - Not in palms, coles, lips, nipples, portions of external genitalia. 
    • - Functions include to warn off insects on skin, physical trauma, heat loss and sunlight.
    • - Hair pigments: melanins (yellow, rust, brown, black); trichosiderin in red hair.
  44. Appendages of the Skin: Hair follicles
    Where does it extend?
    What is it?
    What's the hair bulb?
    What's the Arrector pili?
    • - extend from epidermal surface to the dermis.
    • - Two-layered wall. Part dermis, part epidermis.
    • - Hair bulb expanded deep end. Sensory nerve endings - touch receptors.
    • - Arrector pili are smooth muscles attached to follicle and responsible for "good bumps."
    • - Hair papilla would be dermal tissue - causing blood supply.
  45. Types and growth of hair
    What are the two type of hair growth?
    What can affect hair growth?
    • - 1. Vellus hair : pale, fine body air of children and adult females.
    • - 2. Terminal hair : coarse, long hair of eyebrows, scalp.
    • At puberty, appears in axillary and pubic regions of both sexes. Face and neck of males. 
    • - Nutrition and hormones affect hair growth.
  46. What's Alpecia?
    What's True (frank) baldness?
    - hair thinning in both sexes after age 40

    • - genetically determined and sex-influences condition. 
    • - male pattern baldness caused by follicular response to DHT 
    • - Treatments : minoxidil (rogaine) and finasteride (propecia)
  47. Sweat Glands
    What are the two main types and go into detail.
    - Eccrine (merocrine) sweat glands and Apocrine.
  48. Sweat Glands : Eccrine (merocrine) 
    Where are they abundant?
    Where do the ducts connect?
    What's its function?
    What does it secrete?
    • - abundant on palms, soles and forehead.
    • - ducts connect to pores.
    • - functions in thermoregulation.
    • - secretes sweat.
  49. Sweat Glands : Apocrine
    Found only where?
    What causes what?
    Ducts empty where?
    • - axillary and anogenital areas.
    • - odorless until bacterial interaction which causes body odor. 
    • - ducts empty into hair follicles.
    • - functions during puberty and may act as sexual scent gland.
  50. Sebaceous (Oil) Glands 
    How is it distributed?
    Where is it most developed?
    When is it active?
    What does it secrete?
    • - widely distributed (not in thick skin of palms and soles.)
    • - Most develop from hair follicles and secrete into hair follicles.
    • - relatively inactive until puberty (stimulated by hormones, especially androgens.)
    • - Secretes sebum which are oily holocrine secretions. Bactericidal. Helps soften hair and skin.
  51. 6 functions of the integumentary system
    • - protection
    • - body temperature regulation
    • - cutaneous sensation
    • - metabolic functions
    • - blood reservoir
    • - excretion.
  52. Integumentary system : Protection
    What 3 types of barriers does it provide?
    - Chemical, physical and biological barriers. 

    • - Chemical barrier:
    • • Skin secretions (Low pH retards bacterial multiplication and sebum and defenses kill bacteria.
    • • Melanin : defense against UV radiation damage. 
    • - Physical barriers
    • • flat, dead cells of stratum corneum surrounded by lipids. 
    • • Keratin and glycolipids block most water and water soluble substances. 
    • - Biological barriers 
    • • dendritic cells and macrophages of epidermis present foreign antigens to white blood cells.
  53. Integumentary System : Body temperature regulation
    What's insensible perspiration?
    What happens when body temp. rises?
    What happens during cold external environment?
    • - If body temp. is normal (environmental temp is below 31-32* C)
    • - dilation of dermal vessels and increased sweat gland activity. (sensible perspiration)
    • dermal blood vessels constrict and skin temp. drops to slow passive heat loss.
  54. Integumentary System : Cutaneous sensations

    What does it do?
    Cutaneous sensory receptors - part of nervous system - detect temperature, touch and pain.
  55. Integumentary System : Metabolic functions.
    What does it synthesize?
    • - synthesis of vitamin D precursor and collagenase. 
    • -chemical conversion of carcinogens and activate some hormones.
  56. Integumentary System :

    Blood reservoir?
    - Blood reservoir : up to 5% of body's blood volume

    - Excretion : nitrogenous wastes and salt in sweat.
  57. Skin Cancer 
    What are some risk factors?
    What are the three major types of skin cancer? (From the most benign and common to the most harmful)
    • Most skin tumors are benign (not cancerous) and do not metastasize (spread)

    • - Risk factors : overexposure to UV radiation. Frequent irritation of skin.
    • - Three major skin types : Basal cell carcinoma; Squamous cell carcinoma; Melanoma.
  58. Skin Cancer : Basal Cell carcinoma 
    How often does it happen?
    What happens during this?
    How to treat?
    • - least malignant and most common.
    • - stratum basal cells proliferate and slowly invade dermis and hypodermis.
    • - cured by surgical excision in 99% of cases.
  59. Skin Cancer : Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
    How is it different from the rest?
    What does it involve?
    How does it look like and usually where?
    Does it metastasize?
    How to treat?
    • - second most common.
    • - keratinocytes of stratum spinosum.
    • - scaly reddened papule on scalp, ears, lower lip, and hands.
    • - does metastasize.
    • - Good prognosis if treated by radiation therapy or removes surgically.
  60. Skin Cancer  : Melanoma
    Cancer of ____?
    How is it different from the rest?
    How is it treated?
    How to check symptoms?
    • - Celmanocytes
    • - Most dangerous. Highly metastatic and resistant to chemotherapy. 
    • - Treated by wide surgical excision accompanied by immunotherapy.
    • - Early detection through ABCD rule; (A: asymmetry. The two sides of the pigmented area do not match; B: border irregularity. Exhibits indentations; C: color. contains several black brown tan and sometimes red or blue; D: diameter is larger than 6mm.)
  61. Central Nervous System (CNS)
    Consists of two things.
    The first one is surrounded by ___... and is composed of what?
    The second one has has 4 major "regions"?
    • - Spinal cord : Central cavity surrounded by gray matter. External white matter composed of myelinated fiber tracts. 
    • - Adult brain regions : Cerebral hemispheres; diencephalon; brain stem (midbrain, pons and medulla); cerebellum.
  62. Ventricles of the Brain.
    Filled with what?
    How is it connected?
    • - cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
    • - connected to one another and to central canal of spinal cord.
  63. Cerebral Cortex.
    What type of layer?
    Makes up how much of the brain?
    It's a site of?
    • - superficial layer of gray matter. 
    • - 40% mass of brain
    • - site of conscious mind : awareness, sensory, perception, voluntary motor initiation, communication, memory storage, understanding.
  64. What are the 4 general Considerations of Cerebral Cortex?
    • - 1. Three types of functional areas :
    • Motor areas (control voluntary movement.); Sensory areas (conscious awareness of sensation.) ;
    • Association areas (Integrate diverse information.)
    • - 2. Each hemisphere concerned with contralateral side of body.
    • - 3. Lateralization of cortical function in hemispheres.
    • - 4. Conscious behavior involves entire cortex in some way.
  65. Lateralization of Cortical Function.
    How do the hemispheres relate?
    Define Lateralization and Cerebral dominance.
    • - Almost identical 
    • - Lateralization : division of labor between hemispheres.
    • - Cerebral dominance : hemisphere dominant for language (left hemisphere - 90% people)
  66. Lateralization of Cortical Function.
    What does the left hem. control?
    What does the right hem. control?
    How do the two hemispheres communicate with one another?
    • - controls language, math and logic.
    • - Visual-spatial skills, intuition, emotion, artistic and musical skills.
    • - instantaneously via fiber tracts and functional integration.
  67. Cerebral White Matter
    What does it contain?
    What's its purpose?
    It comes with 3 types of fibers.?
    • - myelinated fibers and tracts.
    • - communication between cerebral areas, and between cortex and lower CNS.
    • - Association fibers : Horizontal. Connects different parts of same hemisphere.
    • Commissural fibers : Horizontal. Connects gray matter of two hemispheres.
    • Projection fibers : Vertical. Connects hemispheres with lower brain or spinal cord.
  68. Basal Nuclei.
    What are its functions?
    • - Influences muscle movement.
    • - Role in cognition and emotion.
    • - Regulate intensity of slow or stereotyped movements.
    • - Filter out incorrect/inappropriate responses.
    • - Inhibit antagonistic/ unnecessary movements.
  69. Diencephalon consists of three things?
    Thalamus, Hypothalamus, Epithalamus 
  70. Diencephalon : Thalamus 
    It's the ___ to cerebral cortex.
    What does it do to input?
    What does it mediate?
    • - gateway 
    • - sorts, edits and relays ascending input. (impulses from hypothalamus for regulation of emotion and visceral function; impulses from cerebellum and basal nuclei to help direct motor cortices; impulses for memory or sensory integration.)
    • - Mediates sensation, motor activités, cortical arousal, learning and memory.
  71. Diencephalon : Hypothalamus 
    What 4 things does it regulate? 
    Which systems does it control?
    What are its physical responses?
    • - regulates body temperature, hunger, water balance and thirst, sleep-wake cycle.
    • - Controls endocrine system (pituitary gland) and controls autonomic nervous system (ex: blood pressure, rate and force of heartbeat, digestive tract, pupil size.)
    • - Physical responses to emotions (limbic system)
  72. Brain Stem.
    What does it control?
    What does it contain?
    What are the three regions?
    • - controls automatic behaviors necessary for survival.
    • - Contains fiber tracts connecting higher and lower neural centers.
    • - Three regions : Midbrain, pons, medulla, oblongata.
  73. Cerebellum.
    Makes up how much of the brain?
    Where is it located at?
    Input from....?
    Allows what?
    • - 11% of brain mass.
    • - dorsal to pons and medulla.
    • - input from cortex, brain stem and sensory receptors.
    • - Allows smooth, coordinated movements.
  74. Cognitive Function of Cerebellum
    What's its role?
    • Plays a role in thinking, language and emotion.
    • May compare actual with expected output and adjust accordingly.
  75. Functional Brain System.
    What is it?
    There are two systems involved.
    - Networks of neurons that work together but span wide areas of brain.

    - Limbic system and Reticular System.
  76. Limbic System. 
    Where is it located at?
    What does it include?
    • - Structures on medial aspects of cerebral hemisphere and diencephalon.
    • - Includes parts of diencephalon and some cerebral structures that encircle brain stem.
  77. Limbic System.
    There are two things that play different roles.
    What's an example that displays how the limbic system puts emotional responses to odors?
    Most output relayes via what?
    • - 1. Amygdaloid body : recognized angry or fearful facial expressions, assesses danger, and elicits fear response.
    • - 2. Cingulate gyrus : role in expressing emotions via gestures and resolves mental conflicts.
    • - Example : skunks smell bad.
    • - Most output relayed via hypothalamus.
  78. Limbic System : Emotion and Cognition
    How does the limbic system interact with prefrontal lobes?
    • - reacts emotionally to things we consciously understand to be happening.
    • - Consciously aware of emotional richness in our lives.
  79. Reticular Formation.
    What does it have?
    Has far-flung axonal connections with hypothalamus, thalamus, cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and spinal cord -> can govern brain arousal. 
  80. Brain Wave Patterns and the EEG.
    What does normal brain function involve?
    Define EEG.
    • - involves continuous electrical activity.
    • - Electroencephalogram which records electrical activity that accompanies brain function.
  81. Brain Waves. 
    What is it?
    How is it generated?
    How can it be grouped?
    • - patterns of neural electrical activity.
    • - Generated by synaptic activity in cortex.
    • - Can be grouped into four classes based on frequency measured as hertz (Hz)
    • (Alpha : awake but relaxed,
    • Beta : awake, alert,
    • Theta : common in children 
    • Delta waves : deep sleep)
  82. Brain Waves : State of the brain.
    When does it change?
    Something is used to localize the brain's what?
    What does flat EEG mean?
    • - changes with age, sensory stimuli, brain disease, and chemical state of body.
    • - EEG's used to diagnose and localize brain lesions, tumors, infarcts, infections, abscesses and epileptic lesions.
    • - Flat EEG is clinical evidence of brain death.
  83. Consciousness.
    What is it.
    What are its capabilities?
    Loss of consciousness can indicate what?
    • - conscious perception of sensation; voluntary initiation and control of movement.
    • - Capabilities associated with higher mental processing (memory, logic, judgement, etc.)
    • - Signal that brain function is impaired. 
    • (Fainting or syncopy : breif.
    • Coma : extended period)
  84. Consciousness.
    There are 4 scales that clinically define consciousness on continuum that grades behavior in response to stimuli.
    • - Alertness, drowsiness (lethargy), stupor, coma.
    • - Involves simultaneous activity of large cortical areas.
    • - Superimposed on other neural activities (e.g. motor control and cognition.)
    • - Holistic and totally interconnected - information for "thought" can be claimed from many locations (e.g., smell, place, particular people.)
  85. Sleep and sleep-wake Cycles. 
    What is it?
    What are the two major types?
    • - State of partial unconsciousness form which person can be aroused by stimulation. 
    • - 1. Non rapid eye movement (NREM)
    • - 2. Rapid eye movement (REM) - when most dreaming occurs.
  86. Importance of Sleep.
    Deprivation of REM sleep causes what?
    What does REM sleep provide?
    • - become moody and depressed.
    • - gives the brain an opportunity to analyze the day's events and work through emotional problems in dream imagery. 
    • May be reverse learning process where superfluous information purged from brain.
    • Declutters brain. 

    - Daily sleep requirements decline with age, as does the time spend in REM sleep.
  87. Sleep Disorders.
    Define Narcolepsy
    Define Insomnia 
    Define Sleep apnea
    • - abrubt lapse into REM sleep from awake state (lasts about 15 minutes, can be triggered by a pleasurable event.)
    • - Chronic inability to obtain amount or quality of sleep needed.
    • - Temporary cessation of breathing during sleep (causes hypoxia)
  88. Language. 
    What's language implementation systems made up of? What is it? What does it analyze? What does it produce?
    • - Basal nuclei, Broca's area and Wernicke's area. 
    • - It's a surrounding set of cortical areas forms a bridge between this system and the regions of the cortex that hold concepts and ideas.
    • - Analyzes incoming word sounds.
    • - Produces outgoing word sounds and grammatical structures.

    - corresponding areas on right side are involved with nonverbal language components (tone, lilt, gestures - things that allow us to understand the emotional content of what we hear.)
  89. Memory.
    What is it?
    Why is it essential.
    Storage and retrieval of information - essential for learning and incorporating or experiences into behavior.
  90. Memory.
    What are the two stages of storage?
    • - Short term memory : (STM, or working memory) temporary holding of information; limited to seven or eight pieces of information.
    • - Long term memory : (LTM) has limitless capacity. Can be forgotten, memory bank changes with time. Ability to store and retrieve information changes with time.
  91. Transfer from STM to LTM.
    What are the factors that affect transfer from STM to LTM?
    • - emotional state : best if alert, motivated, surprised, and aroused.
    • - Rehearsal : Repetition and practice
    • - Association : tying new information with old memories.
    • - Automatic memory : subconscious information stored in LTM
  92. Categories of Memory.
    • 1. Declarative (fact) memory : explicit information (names, faces, dates). Related to conscious thoughts and language ability. Stored in LTM with context in which learned.
    • 2. Nondeclareative Memory : less conscious or unconscious. Acquired though experience and repetition. Best remembered by doing; hard to unlearn. Includes procedural (skills) memory, motor memory, and emotional memory.
  93. Protection of the Brain. 
    Why should the brain be super protected?
    What is the brain protected by?
    • - nervous tissue is soft and delicate - easily injured.
    • - Protected by : bone (skull); membranes (meninges); Watery cushion (cerebrospinal fluid); Blood brain barrier (protects from harmful substances in the blood.)
  94. Meninges. 
    What does it cover and protect?
    What does it contain?
    What does it form?
    • - covers and protects CNS. Also protects blood vessels and enclose venous sinuses.
    • - contains cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
    • - Forms partitions in skull.
  95. Meninges (3 layers).
    What are the three layers?
    • - Dura Mater : strongest matrix. Two layers (periosteal and meningeal layer) of fibrous connective tissue (around brain) separate to form dural venous sinuses.
    • - Arachnoid Mater : middle layer with weblike extensions. Separates from dura mater by subdural space.
    • - Pia Mater : delicate vascularized connective tissue that clings tightly to brain.
  96. Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
    What's its composition?
    What are its functions?
    • - watery solution form from blood plasma. Less protein and different ion concentrations than plasma.
    • - Gives buoyancy to CNS structures. Protects CNS from blows and other traumas. Nourishes brain and carries chemical signals.
  97. Blood Brain Barrier. 
    What does it help maintain?
    What does it separate?
    • - helps maintain stable environment for brain.
    • - separates neurons from some blood borne substances.
  98. Blood Brain Barrier : Functions
    What does it mean when it's considered a selective barrier? (3)
    When is it absent?
    • - Allows nutrients to move by facilitated diffusion.
    • - Metabolic wastes, proteins, toxins, most drugs, small nonessential amino acids, K+ denied.
    • - Allows any fat-soluble substances to pass, including alcohol, nicotine and anesthetics.

    - Absent in some areas, e.g., vomiting center and hypothalamus, where necessary to monitor chemical composition of blood.
  99. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
    What does it provide?
    What does it include?
    • - provides links from and to world outside body.
    • - All neural structures outside brain : sensory receptors, peripheral nerves and associated ganglia and efferent motor endings.
  100. Sensory receptors.
    what are they?
    what happens when they're activated?
    Define sensation and perception.
    • - specialized to respond to changes in environment (stimuli)
    • - activation results in graded potentials that trigger nerve impulses.
    • - Sensation : (awareness of stimulus) and perception (interpretation of meaning of stimulus) occur in brain. 
  101. Classification of Receptors are based on what?
    • - type of stimulus
    • - location of stimulus 
    • - structural complexity
  102. Classification by Stimulus type
    • -Mechanoreceptors : responds to touch, pressure, vibration and stretch.
    • - Thermoreceptors : sensitive to changes in temperature.
    • - Photoreceptors : respons to light energy (e.g, retina.)
    • - Chemoreceptors : responds to chemicals (e.g, , taste, changes in blood chemistry.
    • - Nociceptors : sensitive to pain-causing stimuli (e.g. extreme heat or cold, excessive pressure, inflammatory chemicals.) 
  103. Classification by Location : Exteroceptors 
    What do they respond to?
    How is it important?
    • - responds to stimuli arising outside the body.
    • - receptors in skin for touch, pressure, pain and temperature.
    • - most special sense organs.
  104. Classification by Location : Interoceptors (visceroceptors)
    Responds to?
    Sensitive to?
    Sometimes causes what?
    • - repsond to stimuli arising in internal viscera and blood vessels.
    • - Sensitive to chemical changes, tissue stretch, and temperature changes.
    • - Sometimes cause discomfort but usually unaware of their working.
  105. Classification by Location : Proprioceptors 
    Responds to what?
    Informs what?
    • - respond to stretch in skeletal muscles, tendons, joints, ligaments, and connective tissue coverings of bones and muscles.
    • - Inform brain of one's movement.
  106. Classification by Receptor Structure.
    What are the simple receptors for general senses?
    What are the receptors for special senses?
    • - Tactile sensations (touch, pressure, stretch, vibration), temperature, pain, and muscle 
    • - Modified dendritic endings of sensory neurons.

    • Receptors for special senses. 
    • - Vision, hearing, equilibrium, smell taste.
  107. Simple receptors of the General Senses
    • - Nonencapsulated (free) nerve endings. Abundant in epithelia and connective tissues. Respond mostly to temperature and pain; some to pressure-induced tissue movement; itch.
    • - Encapsulated nerve endings. One or more fiber terminals enclosed in a connective tissue capsule and virtually all are mechanoreceptors. 
  108. Unencapsulated dendritic endings
    • Thermoreceptors
    • Cold receptors (10-40*C); in superficial dermis.
    • Heat receptors (32-48*C); in deeper dermis
    • Outside those temperature ranges -> nociceptors activated -> pain. 
  109. From Sensation to Perception.
    What does survival depend on?
    Define Sensation and Perception.
    • - depends upon Sensation and Perception. 
    • - Sensation : the awareness of changes in the internal and external environment.
    • - Perception : the conscious interpretation of those stimuli.
  110. Sensory Integration. 
    What's the somatosensory system?
    What does it receive?
    Where is it inputed and processed how?
    • - part of sensory system serving body wall and limbs.
    • - Receives input from exteroceptors, proprioceptors and interoceptors.
    • - Input relayed toward head, but processed along way.
  111. Sensory Integration. 
    What are the levels of neural integration in sensory systems?
    • - 1. Receptor level : sensory receptors.
    • - 2. Circuit level : processing in ascending pathways.
    • - 3. Perceptual level : processing in cortical sensory areas.
  112. Processing at the Receptor Level.
    What needs to happen in order to produce a sensation; 
    Receptors need what?
    What occurs?
    What must be reached?
    • - Receptors have specificity for stimulus energy. 
    • - Stimulus must be applied in receptive field.
    • - Transduction occurs (Stimulus changed to graded potential (Generator potential or receptor potential.)
    • - Graded potentials must reach threshold -> AP
  113. Processing at the Receptor Level.

    Steps in general?
    - In general sense receptors, graded potential called generator potential. 

    stimulus -> Generator potential in afferent neuron -> Action Potential.
  114. Processing at the Receptor Level.

    Steps in special sense organs.
    • Stimulus -> Graded potential in receptor cell called receptor potential -> affects amount of neurotransmitter release -> Neurotransmitters generate graded potentials in sensory neuron. 
  115. Adaptation of Sensory Receptors.
    What is it?
    What happens to receptor membranes?
    What happens to receptor potentials?
    • - adaptation is change in sensitivity in presence of constant stimulus.
    • - Receptor membranes become less responsive. 
    • - Receptor potentials decline in frequency or stop.
  116. Adaptation of Sensory Receptors.
    What are Phasic receptors?
    What are tonic receptors?
    - signal beginning or end of stimulus. (Ex: receptors for pressure, touch and smell.

    - adapt slowly or not at all (Ex: nociceptors and most proprioceptors.
  117. Processing at the Circuit Level.
    What does the pathway of three neurons do?
    What 3 things does the sensory pathway typically consist of?
    - conduct sensory impulses upward to appropriate cortical regions.

    • - Chain of 3 neurons :
    • 1. First-order sensory neurons : conduct impulses from receptor level to spinal reflexes or second-order neurons in CNS.
    • 2. Second-order sensory neurons : transmit impulses to third-order sensory neurons.
    • 3. Third-order sensory neurons : conduct impulses from thalamus to the cortex (perceptual level)
  118. Processing at the Perceptual Level.
    What does the interpretation of sensory input depend on?
    What are some aspects of sensory perception?
    - depends on specific location of target neurons in sensory cortex.

    • - Aspects of sensory perception 
    • 1. Perceptual detection : ability to detect a stimulus 
    • 2. Magnitude estimation : intensity coded in frequency of impulses.
    • 3. Spatial discrimination : identifying site or pattern of stimulus (studied by two-point discrimination test)
  119. Processing at the Perceptual Level. 
    Define feature abstraction; Quality discrimination; Pattern recognition
    • - Feature abstraction : identification of more complex aspects and several stimulus properties.
    • - Quality discrimination : ability to identify sub modalities of a sensation (e,g., sweet or sour tastes.)
    • - Pattern recognition : recognition of familiar or significant patterns in stimuli (e.g., melody in piece of music.) 
  120. Perception of Pain 
    What does it do?
    Some pain impulses are blocked by something?
    How do we perceive that pain?
    Pain tolerance is what and what else about it?
    • - warns of actual or impending tissue damage = protective action.
    • - some pain impulses are blocked by inhibitory endogenous opioids (e.g., endorphins) 
    • - All perceive pain at same stimulus intensity (same threshold) 
    • - Pain tolerance varies. 
    • - Genes help determine pain tolerance, response to pain medication.
  121. Structure of a Nerve
    What does it look like?
    What types of tissue coverings does it include?
    • - cordlike organ of PNS : Bundle of myelinated and nonmyelinated axons enclosed by connective tissue.
    • - Connective tissue coverings include : 
    • 1. Endoneurium : loose connective tissue that encloses axons and their myelin sheaths.
    • 2. Perineurium : coarse connective tissue that bundles fibers into fascicles. 
    • 3. Epineurium : tough fibrous sheath around a nerve.
  122. Classification of Nerves.
    Most nerves are a mixture of what? 
    How is it classified?
    • - most nerves are mixtures of afferent and efferent fibers and somatic and autonomic (visceral) fibers.
    • - Classified according to direction transmit impulses : mixed nerves (both sensory and motor fibers; impulses both to and from CNS).
    • Sensory (afferent) nerves - impulses only toward CNS. 
    • Motor (efferent) nerves - impulses only away from CNS.