Social Studies - Colonialism

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  1. What was the Atlantic Slave Trade?
    The sale of African slaves across the Atlantic Ocean to European colonists.
  2. What event brought on the beginning of the Atlantic Slave Trade?
    The discovery of American (particularly Central and South American)
  3. How many Africans were exported to the Americas between the 15th and early 20th centuries?
    10-12 million Africans
  4. Which century experienced the largest export of slaves from Africa?
  5. Who were the primary carriers throughout the history of the slave trade?
    Portuguese until the 1640s, then the Dutch, French, and British
  6. Was the Atlantic Slave Trade the first of any kind of slave trade occurring in Africa? If not, where did slave trade occur?
    No, slaves were traded with the Muslims of North and East Africa.
  7. How were some Africans involved in the slave trade?
    African coastal federations acted as middlemen in the slave trade. The federations would make war on their neighbors to capture slaves for the Europeans.
  8. What goods did the Europeans exchange for slaves?
    Firearms, tobacco, alcohol, and cotton
  9. Between which two dates did the Atlantic Slave Trade thrive?
  10. What are some reasons that brought slave trade to an end by the early 20th century?
    • British and French abolitionists were fighting to end slavery.
    • European demand for slave labor diminished.
    • Europeans went in search of raw materials, prestige, and military gain as the Industrial Revolution spread.
  11. Why did the Portuguese look for slaves in Africa? Why was Africa such an easy target?
    • The Portuguese started to sail along the West African coast and started to form trading partners with the West Africans (Wolof state, Akan states, as well as chiefdoms along Niger and Congo Rivers, such as the Benin and Kongo empire). Trade consisted of exchanging gold, ivory, and a small number of slaves.
    • When the Portuguese started to operate large plantations and mines in Central and South American, the native Indian weren't used to hard labor and started dying. When there were not enough natives left, they looked for slaves in Africa because of trade partnerships.
  12. Why did the Portuguese and Spanish need slaves by 1500?
    There weren't enough natives to work the plantations and mines in the Americas.
  13. Where were conditions of the slaves while sailing across the Atlantic?
    The ships were cramped, dirty, smelly, and uncomfortable. About 10 to 15 percent died on the trip across the Atlantic.
  14. Which people felt they were 'racially superior' to the Africans?
    The Europeans
  15. Which members of the African population were especially decreased by the slave trade?
    Men ages 14-24, women ages 14-22
  16. For how many years were slaves exported to the Americas?
    400 years
  17. What type of trade was conducted after the slave trade stopped?
    Trade in cheap industrial goods, which led Africa to become dependent on European goods rather than producing their own.
  18. What goods were being produced in Africa before European colonization?
    Cotton and metal goods.
  19. Name two empires that prospered during the slave trade years?
    Yorumba Kingdom grew in size and strength. The Asanti empire rose in central and coastal Ghana.
  20. Where was palm oil being produced?
    West Africa along the Niger Delta.
  21. Describe the effects of slave trade on West Africa.
  22. To what extent were the consequences of the slave trade negative? positive?
  23. Define imperialism
    The exercise of power by a state beyond its boundaries.
  24. Define colonialism
    A form of imperialism, the administration control by a state over other people
  25. Why is the first phase of European imperials and colonialism in Africa known as the "scramble for Africa"?
    Because Africa was conquered and divided by the European powers. The largest were France and Britain (controlled about 2/3 of Africa). Other powers who contended for African territory included Belgium, Germany, Italy, Potugal, and Spain.
  26. Name the 3 motivating factors that led to the colonization of Africa.
    Scienctific interest, the spread of Christianity, and imperialism
  27. What is ethnocentrism?
    The belief of one group of people feels superior to other groups of people, primarily because of cultural differences. Europeans believed that Africans were inferior and 'uncivilized' because they were not technically advanced and still lived in primitive ways.
  28. Why did the Europeans feel it a duty and right to 'civilize the Africans'?
    Because they felt they were 'uncivilized'.
  29. Why did the Africans not resist violently the European 'scramble for power'?
    because they depended on the Europeans for trade.
  30. How was the partition of Africa decided among the European powers?
    Africa was partitioned to avoid future conflict among the European powers.
  31. Who were the European powers involved in the partition of Africa?
    Belgium, Germany, Britain, France, Spain, Italy, Portugal
  32. Name the only two independent areas in Africa during this time.
    Liberia and Ethiopia
  33. Describe the period between 1880 and 1914 in Africa.
    A period of conquest and establishing a presence in Africa by the European powers.
  34. What territories did Belgium receive from Germany after WWII?
    Rwanda and Burundi
  35. What area did Britain take over from Germany?
    East Africa
  36. France took over what territory after WWII?
  37. Where was indirect rule first implemented (keeping the African power structure and making it part of the colonial administration)?
  38. In indirect rule, what were local leaders responsible for?
    collecting taxes, providing cheap labor, and reporting to the governor of the colony.
  39. How were Africans treated in a direct rule system?
    They had no powers in the government system.
  40. Who administered the Congo Free State?
    Belgians (Belgium - King Leopold II)
  41. Why did the Belgian government take possession of the Congo in 1908?
    The treatment of the Africans was so harsh.
  42. What type of rule was adopted by Rhodesia?
    Indirect company rule
  43. Who ran the administration in Rhodesia when the colony became self-governing?
    White settler residents
  44. What was the effect (cause-effect) of the colonial governments taking the best land away from the Africans?
    Africans moved to towns, farms and mines in search of work. Working conditions were horrible and wages were low.
  45. What was the effect (cause-effect) of the colonial governments needed more money to run governments after WWII?
    They began taxing the local Africans.
  46. What was the effect (cause-effect) of the loss of manpower after the two world wars?
    A policy of forced labor started in the 1920s.
  47. What was the effect (cause-effect) of the Europeans introducing commercial or cash crops (cocoa, coffee, tea, cotton, minerals) to meet the demands of their home countries?
    Resulted in neglecting the production of food causing famine among many Africans.
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Social Studies - Colonialism
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