Cellular Chemistry

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Dienekes
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269453
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Cellular Chemistry
Updated:
2014-06-13 20:38:35
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Biology Cellular Chemistry
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Biology
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Questions from Cellular Chemistry
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  1. Which of the following is not true of the consumption of hydrogenated vegetable oil?

    A) It increases levels of cholesterol.
    B) All these are true of consuming hydrogenated vegetable oil.
    C) It increases risk of diabetes.
    D) It increases risk of atherosclerosis.
    E) It increases risk of heart attack.
    B) All these are true of consuming hydrogenated vegetable oil.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. The atomic number of an atom is based on the number of

    A) Protons
    B) Neutrons
    C) Protons and neutrons
    D) Electrons
    E) Protons, neutrons, and electrons
    A) Protons
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. Which of the following is not true of ions?

    A) They are charged.
    B) They can have more protons than electrons.
    C) They lack unpaired electrons.
    D) They can have more electrons than protons.
    E) All these are true.
    E) All these are true.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. Which of the following is not true of ionic bonds?

    A) They can be very strong.
    B) They form crystals.
    C) Sodium chloride is an example.
    D) They form by the attraction of oppositely charged ions.
    E) They involve the sharing of electrons.
    E) They involve the sharing of electrons.

    Covalent bonds involve the sharing of electrons.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. Which of the following accurately represents the relative sizes and positions of the atoms in a molecule?

    A) Structural formula
    B) Chemical name
    C) Structural model
    D) Shell model
    E) Chemical formula
    C) Structural model
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. Which of the following is not true of substances that dissolve in water?

    A) They may have negative charges.
    B) They may have positive charges.
    C) Sodium chloride is an example.
    D) They are hydrophilic.
    E) They are nonpolar molecules.
    E) They are nonpolar molecules.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. The cohesion that exists between water molecules is due to

    A) Gravity
    B) Hydrogen bonds
    C) Covalent bonds
    D) The strong nuclear force
    E) Ionic bonds
    B) Hydrogen bonds
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. Which of the following is not true of acids?

    A) They lower pH.
    B) Gastric fluid is an example.
    C) They give up hydrogen ions.
    D) Buffers can offset their impact on pH.
    E) All these are true of acids.
    E) All these are true of acids.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. How many more hydrogen ions are present in a solution of pH 3 compared to a solution of pH 6?

    A) 3 times.
    B) 6 times.
    C) They have the same amount of hydrogen ions.
    D) 9 times.
    E) 1000 times.
    E) 1000 times. 

    Each change in pH is a factor of 10, so 1 change (from 3 to 4) has 10x, the next change (3 to 5) has 100x, and another change (3 to 6) has 1000x.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. Which of the following is not true of organic molecules?

    A) They are made by living things.
    B) Carbohydrates are an example.
    C) They have elements unique to living things.
    D) They have a high proportion of carbon.
    E) Nucleic acids are an example.
    C) They have elements unique to living things.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  11. Metabolism does not include

    A) All these are part of metabolism.
    B) The formation of organic molecules.
    C) The breaking of organic molecules.
    D) Reactions.
    E) The activity of enzymes.
    A) All these are part of metabolism.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  12. Which of the following is not a complex carbohydrate?

    A) Starch.
    B) Glucose.
    C) Glycogen.
    D) All these are complex carbohydrates.
    E) Cellulose.
    B) Glucose.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. Carbohydrates contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in the ratio

    A) 2:1:2
    B) 1:2:1
    C) 1:1:1
    D) 2:1:1
    E) 1:1:2
    B) 1:2:1
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  14. Which is true of saturated fats?

    A) They are mainly triglycerides.
    B) Their fatty acid tails do not pack together tightly.
    C) Partially hydrogenated vegetable oil is an example.
    D) They are liquid at room temperature.
    E) They are made by plants.
    A) They are mainly triglycerides.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. Phospholipids are

    A) Hydrophilic and hydrophobic
    B) Hydrophobic
    C) Made of four carbon rings
    D) Hydrophilic
    E) Triglycerides
    A) Hydrophilic and hydrophobic
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  16. Amino acids vary from each other in their

    A) Amino group
    B) Carboxyl group
    C) Central carbon
    D) R group
    E) Hydrogen ion
    D) R group
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  17. Which of the following cannot impact protein shape?

    A) Detergents.
    B) Heat.
    C) Prions.
    D) All these may alter protein shape.
    E) Acids.
    D) All these may alter protein shape.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  18. Which of the following is not part of a nucleotide?

    A) Carboxyl group.
    B) Phosphate groups.
    C) All these are part of a nucleotide.
    D) Nitrogen-containing base.
    E) Five-carbon sugar.
    A) Carboxyl group.

    Both deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) are made up of nucleotides which consist of three parts: Nitrogenous Base, Pentose Sugar, and Phosphate Group.

    The carboxyl group is an organic functional group consisting of a carbon atom double bonded to an oxygen atom and single bonded to a hydroxyl group.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. Which of the following is not a role of nucleotides?

    A) Insulator
    B) Energy carrier
    C) Chemical messenger
    D) Enzyme helper
    E) Director of protein synthesis
    A) Insulator

    Nucleotides have many functional roles the first one would be that they
    are components of nucleic acids (DNA, RNA), carriers of chemical energy
    in the cell (eg., ATP, GTP), components of cofactors (eg., NAD, FAD),
    they are also Intermediates in cellular communication and signal
    transduction (eg., cAMP, cGMP), and last but not least, donor
    substrates for glycobiology (eg. UDPG).
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. Which of the following is not true of trans-fatty acids?

    A) They are linked to numerous health problems.
    B) Their presence is accurately represented on product labels.
    C) All these are true of trans-fatty acids.
    D) We may lack enzymes to metabolize them.
    E) They are rare in unprocessed foods.
    B) Their presence is accurately represented on product labels.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  21. Set of chemicals that can keep the pH of a solution stable by alternately donating and accepting ions that contribute to pH.
    Buffer
  22. A type of lipid with four carbon rings and no fatty acid tails.
    Steroids
  23. Tough, insoluble carbohydrate that is the major structural material in plants.
    Cellulose
  24. Molecule that consists of multiple monomers.
    Polymers
  25. Atom that carries a charge because it has an unequal number of protons and electrons
    Ions
  26. Substance that releases hydrogen ions in water.
    Acids
  27. Describes a substance that resists dissolving in water.
    Hydrophobic
  28. Small organic compound that is a subunit of proteins. Consists of a carboxyl group, an
    amine group, and a characteristic side group (R), all typically bonded to the same carbon atom.
    Amino acid
  29. Transition of a liquid to a vapor.
    Evaporation
  30. Molecule that is a subunit of polymers.
    Monomers
  31. Liquid that can dissolve other substances.
    Solvent
  32. Positively charged subatomic particle that occurs in the nucleus of all atoms.
    Protons
  33. Electrical property; opposite charges attract, and like charges repel.
    Charge
  34. Substance that accepts hydrogen ions in water.
    Bases
  35. Regarding a biological molecule, to become so altered in shape that some or all function is lost.
    Denature
  36. Organic compound that consists of one or more chains of amino acids (polypeptides).
    Proteins
  37. A pure substance that consists only of atoms with the same number of protons.
    Elements
  38. Negatively charged subatomic particle.
    Electrons
  39. Molecule that consists primarily of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms in a 1:2:1 ratio.
    Carbohydrates
  40. Describes a substance that dissolves easily in water.
    Hydrophilic
  41. Describes a molecule that consists mainly of carbon and hydrogen atoms.
    Organic
  42. Of an isotope, the total number of protons and neutrons in the atomic nucleus
    Mass number
  43. Deoxyribonucleic acid. Nucleic acid that carries hereditary information about traits;
    consists of two nucleotide chains twisted in a double helix.
    DNA
  44. Fat that consists mainly of triglycerides with one or more unsaturated fatty acid tails.
    Unsaturated fats
  45. Property of a substance that arises from the tendency of its molecules to resist separating from one another
    Cohesion
  46. Ionic compound that releases ions other than H+ and OH− when it dissolves in water.
    Salt
  47. Homogeneous mixture of solute and solvent.
    Solution
  48. Lipid that consists of a glycerol molecule with one, two, or three fatty acid tails.
    Fats
  49. Measure of the amount of hydrogen ions in a fluid
    pH
  50. Organic compound that consists of a chain of carbon atoms with an acidic carboxyl group at one end.
    Fatty acids
  51. Infectious protein.
    Prion
  52. Uncharged subatomic particle in the atomic nucleus.
    Neutrons
  53. Molecule that consists of multiple monomers.
    Enzymes
  54. Fat that consists mainly of triglycerides with three saturated fatty acid tails.
    Saturated fats
  55. A dissolved substance.
    Solute
  56. A lipid with a phosphate in its hydrophilic head, and two nonpolar fatty acid tails.
    Phospholipid
  57. Single- or double-stranded chain of nucleotides joined by sugar–phosphate bonds; DNA or RNA.
    Nucleic acids
  58. Atom with an unpaired electron
    Free radicals
  59. Type of chemical bond in which two atoms share a pair of electrons
    Covalent bond
  60. Core of an atom; occupied by protons and neutrons.
    Nucleus
  61. Number of protons in the atomic nucleus; determines the element.
    Atomic number
  62. Attraction between a covalently bonded hydrogen atom and another atom taking part in a separate covalent bond.
    Hydrogen bond
  63. Water-repellent mixture of lipids with long fatty acid tails bonded to long-chain alcohols or carbon rings.
    Wax
  64. A fat that has three fatty acid tails.
    Triglyceride
  65. Measure of molecular motion.
    Temperature
  66. Molecule that has atoms of more than one element
    Compound
  67. Type of chemical bond in which a strong mutual attraction links ions of opposite charge
    Ionic bond
  68. Ribonucleic acid. Some types have roles in protein synthesis
    RNA
  69. Any separation of charge into distinct positive and negative regions.
    Polarity
  70. Forms of an element that differ in the number of neutrons their atoms carry.
    Isotopes
  71. Isotope with an unstable nucleus
    Radioisotope
  72. Adenosine triphosphate: nucleotide that consists of an adenine base, a ribose sugar, three phosphate groups.
    ATP
  73. Fatty, oily, or waxy organic compound.
    Lipids
  74. Small organic compound that consists of a five-carbon sugar, a nitrogen-containing base, and one or more phosphate groups.
    Nucleotides
  75. A molecule with a detectable component.
    Tracers
  76. Double layer of lipids arranged tail-to-tail; structural foundation of all cell membranes.
    Lipid bilayers
  77. A bond between the amine group of one amino acid and the carboxyl group of another. Joins amino acids in proteins
    Peptide bond
  78. Process by which atoms of a radioisotope emit energy and subatomic particles when their nucleus spontaneously disintegrates
    Radioactive decay
  79. An attractive force that arises between two atoms when their electrons interact.
    Chemical bond
  80. Model of electron distribution in an atom.
    Shell models
  81. The amount of molecules or ions per unit volume of a solution.
    Concentration
  82. All the enzyme-mediated chemical reactions by which cells acquire and use energy as they build and break down organic molecules.
    Metabolism
  83. Process of molecular change.
    Reactions
  84. Ethanol is detoxified by the

    A) Kidneys
    B) Liver
    C) Bladder
    D) Spleen
    E) Heart
    B) Liver
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  85. The tendency of energy to disperse describes the

    A) Third law of thermodynamics
    B) Second law of thermodynamics
    C) Fourth law of thermodynamics
    D) No law of thermodynamics
    E) First law of thermodynamics
    B) Second law of thermodynamics
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  86. Most of the energy that fuels life on Earth comes from

    A) Preexisting organic molecules
    B) Wind energy
    C) Hydrothermal vents
    D) The sun
    E) Preexisting inorganic molecules
    D) The sun
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  87. Living things do not use energy to

    A) Move.
    B) Grow.
    C) Acquire nutrients.
    D) Living things use energy for all these things.
    E) Reproduce.
    D) Living things use energy for all these things.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  88. Which of the following is not true of the products in a chemical reaction, compared to the reactants?

    A) They have more atoms.
    B) They have the same atoms in different configurations.
    C) They have less energy.
    D) They have the same number of atoms.
    E) They have more energy.
    A) They have more atoms.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  89. The input of energy required to get a chemical reaction started is best described as the

    A) Activation energy
    B) Energy-releasing reaction
    C) Difference in energy between products and reactants
    D) Energy-requiring reaction
    E) None of these
    A) Activation energy
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  90. In chemical reactions, cells do not expend energy to produce

    A) Carbon dioxide.
    B) All these require energy to produce.
    C) Proteins.
    D) Fats.
    E) Carbohydrates.
    A) Carbon dioxide.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  91. An enzyme's active site will match the substrate with regard to

    A) Charge
    B) Shape
    C) All of these
    D) Polarity
    E) Size
    C) All of these
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  92. An enzyme that is denatured is

    A) No longer functional, as it has had its shape changed
    B) Missing its coenzyme
    C) At the ideal pH
    D) Missing its cofactor
    E) Optimized for performance
    A) No longer functional, as it has had its shape changed
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  93. In a metabolic pathway, the product of enzyme two inhibits the activity of enzyme one. This is an example of

    A) Electron transfer
    B) Feedback inhibition
    C) Activation energy
    D) Phosphorylation
    E) Catalysis
    B) Feedback inhibition
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  94. Electron transfer chains allow electrons to release their energy

    A) Very rapidly.
    B) Gradually and in stages.
    C) In a manner that prohibits using the energy.
    D) Not at all—the electron will retain its energy.
    E) All at once.
    B) Gradually and in stages.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  95. Which of the following does not play a role in diffusion?

    A) Concentration.
    B) All these play a role in diffusion.
    C) Pressure.
    D) Temperature.
    E) Charge.
    B) All these play a role in diffusion.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  96. A cell has a higher concentration of solute than its surrounding solution. Which is not true?

    A) The functioning of the cell's enzymes may be impacted.
    B) The cell will lose water to its surrounding solution.
    C) The concentration of the cytoplasm in the cell may change.
    D) The cell could potentially die.
    E) The cell is hypertonic compared with its surrounding solution.
    B) The cell will lose water to its surrounding solution.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  97. Which type of cell is structurally least tolerant of a hypotonic environment?

    A) Fungus
    B) Protist
    C) Animal
    D) Bacterium
    E) Plant
    C) Animal
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  98. Which of the following can diffuse with some efficiency across the phospholipid bilayer?

    A) Sodium ion
    B) Water
    C) Glucose
    D) Phosphate group
    E) Chloride ion
    B) Water
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  99. Active transport does not

    A) Use proteins.
    B) Use energy.
    C) Active transport does all of these things.
    D) Alter the shape of the transporter.
    E) Move ions down their concentration gradient.
    C) Active transport does all of these things.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  100. Phagocytosis is a form of

    A) Exocytosis
    B) Diffusion
    C) Facilitated diffusion
    D) Endocytosis
    E) Osmosis
    D) Endocytosis
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  101. Alcohol dehydrogenase

    A) Makes alcohol
    B) Breaks down acetate
    C) Makes acetate
    D) Makes acetaldehyde
    E) Breaks down acetaldehyde
    D) Makes acetaldehyde

    Alcohol dehydrogenases are a group of dehydrogenase enzymes that occur in many organisms and facilitate the interconversion between alcohols and aldehydes or ketones with the reduction of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  102. Which of the following is not a symptom of cirrhosis of the liver?

    A) Scarring of the liver.
    B) Altered mental function.
    C) All these are symptoms of cirrhosis of the liver.
    D) Swelling of the abdomen.
    E) Increased risk of internal bleeding.
    C) All these are symptoms of cirrhosis of the liver.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  103. Smallest unit of life.
    Cell
  104. Analogous system used for testing hypotheses.
    Model
  105. Organism that gets energy and nutrients by feeding on tissues, wastes, or remains of other organisms.
    Consumers
  106. A community interacting with its environment.
    Ecosystem
  107. Organism whose cells characteristically have a nucleus.
    Eukaryotes
  108. Substance that an organism needs for growth and survival but cannot make for itself.
    Nutrient
  109. A test designed to support or falsify a prediction.
    Experiments
  110. Generalization that describes a consistent natural phenomenon that has an incomplete scientific explanation.
    Law of nature
  111. All populations of all species in a given area.
    Community
  112. Two or more atoms bonded together.
    Molecules
  113. Scope of variation among living organisms.
    Biodiversity
  114. Statement, based on a hypothesis, about a condition that should exist if the hypothesis is correct.
    Prediction
  115. The scientific study of life.
    Biology
  116. Process by which the first cell of a new individual becomes a multicelled adult.
    Development
  117. Member of the most diverse and well-known group of single-celled organisms that lack a nucleus.
    Bacteria
  118. Organism that makes its own food using energy and nonbiological raw materials from the environment.
    Producers
  119. Group of interbreeding individuals of the same species that live in a given area.
    Population
  120. A characteristic or event that differs among individuals or over time.
    Variables
  121. Group of organisms that share a unique set of traits.
    Taxon
  122. Member of a diverse group of simple eukaryotes.
    Protists

    • Protists are a large and diverse group of eukaryotic microorganisms, which belong to the kingdom Protista. There have been
    • attempts to remove the kingdom from the taxonomy but it is still very much in use.
  123. The chance that a particular outcome of an event will occur; depends on the total number of outcomes possible.
    Probability
  124. Multicelled eukaryotic consumer that develops through a series of stages and moves about during part or all of its life.
    Animals
  125. Difference between results derived from testing an entire group of events or individuals, and results derived from testing a subset of the group.
    Sampling error
  126. Transmission of DNA to offspring.
    Inheritance
  127. Judging information before accepting it.
    Critical thinking
  128. A group of species that share a unique set of traits.
    Genus
  129. Fundamental building block of all matter.
    Atoms
  130. Testable explanation of a natural phenomenon.
    Hypothesis
  131. Member of a group of single-celled organisms that lack a nucleus but are more closely related to eukaryotes than to bacteria.
    Archaea

    Archaebacteria are microorganisms that are similar to bacteria in size and simplicity of structure but radically different in molecular organization. They are now believed to constitute an ancient intermediate group between the bacteria and eukaryotes.
  132. Values or other factual information obtained from experiments or surveys.
    Data
  133. Unique type of organism.
    Species
  134. Refers to a result that is statistically unlikely to have occurred by chance.
    Statistically significant
  135. Process by which parents produce offspring.
    Reproduction
  136. Single-celled or multicelled eukaryotic consumer that breaks down material outside
    itself, then absorbs nutrients released from the breakdown.
    Fungi
  137. The science of naming and classifying species.
    Taxonomy
  138. Process by which producers use light energy to make sugars from carbon dioxide and water.
    Photosynthesis
  139. Systematically making, testing, and evaluating hypotheses.
    Scientific method
  140. Hypothesis that has not been disproved after many years of rigorous testing.
    Scientific theory
  141. Individual that consists of one or more cells.
    Organism
  142. Deoxyribonucleic acid; carries hereditary information that guides development and functioning.
    DNA
  143. In an experiment, a group of individuals who are not exposed to the variable being tested.
    Control Group
  144. Double-membraned sac that encloses a cell's DNA.
    Nucleus
  145. In an experiment, a group of individuals who are exposed to a variable.
    Experimental group
  146. Systematic study of the observable world.
    Science
  147. Process in which an organism keeps its internal conditions within tolerable ranges by sensing and responding to change.
    Homeostasis
  148. A multicelled, typically photosynthetic eukaryote.
    Plants
  149. All regions of Earth where organisms live.
    Biosphere
  150. In multicelled species, an increase in the number, size, and volume of cells.
    Growth
  151. Single-celled organism without a nucleus.
    Prokaryotes
  152. Which of the following is not true of photosynthetic organisms?

    A) They can build glucose molecules.
    B) They get energy from sunlight.
    C) They are heterotrophs.
    D) They get carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.
    E) They get carbon from carbon dioxide.
    C) They are heterotrophs.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  153. Carbon dioxide is not released to the atmosphere by burning

    A) Coal.
    B) Natural Gas.
    C) Petroleum.
    D) Trees.
    E) All these release carbon dioxide when burned.
    E) All these release carbon dioxide when burned.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  154. Which of the following has the longest wavelength?

    A) Blue light
    B) Purple light
    C) Green light
    D) Yellow light
    E) Red light
    E) Red light
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  155. Which of these pigments are best at absorbing green light?

    A) Chlorophyll b
    B) Beta carotene
    C) Phycoerythrobilin
    D) Phycocyanobilin
    E) Chlorophyll a
    C) Phycoerythrobilin

    Chlorophyll a is the most common photosynthetic pigment in plants, and also in photosynthetic protists and bacteria. Chlorophyll a absorbs violet, red, and orange light, so it appears green to us.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  156. Which of the following are products of photosynthesis?

    A) Water and oxygen
    B) Carbon dioxide and oxygen
    C) Oxygen and glucose
    D) Glucose and water
    E) Water and carbon dioxide
    C) Oxygen and glucose
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  157. Which of the following is not a product of light-dependent reactions?

    A) NADPH.
    B) ATP.
    C) Oxygen.
    D) All of these are products of light-dependent reactions.
    E) Glucose.
    E) Glucose.

    The products of the light independent reactions of photosynthesis are essentially glucose and energy. These reactions, at the end, convert carbon dioxide and water, along with other compounds in some cases, to glucose and water. These reactions take the products of the light dependent reactions of photosynthesis and process them further. The light independent reactions are referred to as the Calvin cycle. Even though they are referred to as the light independent reactions, they do not take place unless there is light.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  158. Chloroplast DNA is found in the

    A) Outer membrane
    B) Stroma
    C) Inner membrane
    D) Thylakoid
    E) Thylakoid compartment
    B) Stroma

    Stroma: the supportive tissue of an epithelial organ, tumor, gonad, etc., consisting of connective tissues and blood vessels.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  159. Which of the following does not come from water in light-dependent reactions?

    A) Electrons.
    B) NADPH.
    C) All these come from water.
    D) Hydrogen ions.
    E) Oxygen.
    B) NADPH.

    The light-dependent reactions, or photoreduction, is the first stage of photosynthesis, is a process by which plants capture and store energy from sunlight. In this process, light energy is converted into chemical energy, in the form of the energy-carrying molecules ATP and NADPH.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  160. How many photosystems do the electrons pass through?

    A) 0
    B) 2
    C) 4
    D) 3
    E) 1
    B) 2

    Photosystems are functional and structural units of protein complexes involved in photosynthesis that together carry out the primary photochemistry of photosynthesis: the absorption of light and the transfer of energy and electrons. They are found in the thylakoid membranes of plants, algae and cyanobacteria (in plants and algae these are located in the chloroplasts), or in the cytoplasmic membrane of photosynthetic bacteria.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  161. Which of the following does not directly impact the concentration of hydrogen ions in the thylakoid compartment?

    A) Removing electrons from water.
    B) ATP synthase.
    C) Making NADPH.
    D) The proteins of the electron transfer chain.
    E) All of these directly impact the hydrogen ion concentration.
    C) Making NADPH.

    NADP+ is a coenzyme used in anabolic reactions, such as lipid and nucleic acid synthesis, which require NADPH as a reducing agent.

    NADPH is the reduced form of NADP+. NADP+ differs from NAD+ in the presence of an additional phosphate group on the 2' position of the ribose ring that carries the adenine moiety.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  162. How many carbons are fixed in each turn of the Calvin-Benson cycle?

    A) 1
    B) 6
    C) 18
    D) 3
    E) 0
    A) 1

    The light-independent reactions of photosynthesis are chemical reactions that convert carbon dioxide and other compounds into glucose. These reactions occur in the stroma, the fluid-filled area of a chloroplast outside of the thylakoid membranes.

    There are three phases to the light-independent reactions, collectively called the Calvin cycle: carbon fixation, reduction reactions, and ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) regeneration.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  163. Which of the following is not true of CAM plants?

    A) They open their stomata at night.
    B) Cacti are an example.
    C) Carbon is first fixed into a four-carbon molecule.
    D) They are adapted to hot, dry environments.
    E) Carbon fixation occurs in two cells.
    E) Carbon fixation occurs in two cells.

    Carbon fixation occurs in two cells in C4 plants, not CAM plants.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  164. Which of the following is not true of glycolysis?

    A) It makes two net ATP.
    B) It does not require oxygen.
    C) All these are true of glycolysis.
    D) It makes two NADH.
    E) It occurs in the cytoplasm.
    C) All these are true of glycolysis.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  165. By the end of aerobic respiration, the carbons of glucose can be found in

    A) NADPH
    B) ATP
    C) NADH
    D) Carbon dioxide
    E) FADH2
    D) Carbon dioxide

    Cellular respiration is the set of the metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate, and then
    release waste products (including carbon dioxide).
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  166. Which of the following is not true of alcoholic fermentation?

    A) It requires oxygen.
    B) It produces NAD+.
    C) It produces alcohol.
    D) It produces carbon dioxide.
    E) It is performed by a fungus.
    A) It requires oxygen.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  167. It is not true that red muscle fibers

    A) Sustain prolonged activity
    B) Make ATP mostly by lactate fermentation
    C) Have many mitochondria
    D) Have lots of myoglobin
    E) Can store oxygen
    B) Make ATP mostly by lactate fermentation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  168. Which of the following is the most energy dense?

    A) Fats and proteins are the same.
    B) Fats, carbohydrates, and proteins are all the same.
    C) Carbohydrates.
    D) Fat.
    E) Protein.
    D) Fat.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  169. Which of the following cannot be modified to make intermediates of glycolysis?

    A) All these can make intermediates of glycolysis.
    B) Simple carbohydrates.
    C) Complex carbohydrates.
    D) Proteins.
    E) Fats.
    D) Proteins.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  170. The rise in atmospheric carbon dioxide levels corresponded with the beginning of

    A) The black plague
    B) European discovery of America
    C) The industrial revolution
    D) Human agriculture
    E) The fall of Rome
    C) The industrial revolution
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  171. The biological impacts of global warming do not include

    A) All these are impacts of global warming.
    B) Earlier flowering of plants.
    C) Altered migration patterns.
    D) Earlier laying of bird eggs.
    E) Shorter hibernation periods.
    A) All these are impacts of global warming.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  172. Which of the following statements is incorrect?

    A) Free radicals are dangerous because they emit energy.
    B) All ions are atoms.
    C) A carbon atom can share electrons with up to 4 other atoms.
    D) Isotopes have the same atomic number and different mass numbers.
    E) Atoms have about the same number of electrons as protons.
    A) Free radicals are dangerous because they emit energy.

    A free radical is any atom or molecule that has a single unpaired electron in an outer shell.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  173. What is the name of an atom that has one proton and no electrons?
    Hydrogen ion
  174. The mutual attraction of opposite charges holds atoms together as molecules in a(n) _______ bond.

    A) hydrogen
    B) polar covalent
    C) ionic
    D) nonpolar covalent
    C) ionic
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  175. Rank the following types of bonds by polarity, with 1 being the least polar, and 3 being the most polar:

    A) ionic
    B) polar covalent
    C) nonpolar covalent
    • 1) nonpolar covalent
    • 2) polar covalent
    • 3) ionic
  176. A(n) ________  substance repels water.

    A) polar
    B) acidic
    C) basic
    D) hydrophobic
    D) hydrophobic
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  177. When dissolved in water, a(n) ____ donates H+ and a(n) ____ accepts H+.

    A) acid; base
    B) buffer; solute
    C) base; buffer
    D) base; acid
    A) acid; base
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  178. ______  is a simple sugar (a monosaccharide).

    A) Glucose
    B) Glucose, Sucrose and Ribose
    C) Sucrose
    D) Ribose
    E) Starch
    B) Glucose, Sucrose and Ribose
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  179. Unlike saturated fats, the fatty acid tails of unsaturated fats incorporate one or more ____.

    A) double bonds
    B) glycerols
    C) single bonds
    D) phosphate groups
    A) double bonds
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  180. Which of the following is a class of molecules that encompasses all of the other molecules listed?

    A) Fatty acids
    B) Steroids
    C) Lipids
    D) Phospholipids
    E) Triglyceride
    F) Waxes
    C) Lipids
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  181. ____ are to proteins as ____ are to nucleic acids.

    A) Sugars; proteins
    B) Amino acids; nucleotides
    C) Sugars; lipids
    D) Amino acids; hydrogen bonds
    B) Amino acids; nucleotides
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  182. A denatured protein has lost its _____.

    A) shape
    B) all of these
    C) hydrogen bonds
    D) function
    B) all of these
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  183. Which of the following are not found in DNA?

    A) sugars
    B) nucleotides
    C) phosphate groups
    D) amino acids
    D) amino acids
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  184. ____ is life's primary source of energy.

    A) Water
    B) Food
    C) Sunlight
    D) ATP
    C) Sunlight
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  185. Which of the following statements is not correct?

    A) Energy cannot change from one form to another.
    B) Energy cannot be created or destroyed.
    C) Energy tends to disperse spontaneously.
    A) Energy cannot change from one form to another.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  186. If we liken a chemical reaction to an energy hill, then an reaction is an uphill run.

    A) ATP-assisted
    B) energy-releasing
    C) energy-requiring
    D) both energy-requiring and ATP-assisted
    D) both energy-requiring and ATP-assisted
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  187. _____ are always changed by participating in a reaction. (Choose all that are correct.)

    A) Enzymes
    B) Reactants
    C) Active sites
    D) Cofactors
    B) Reactants
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  188. Enzymes ____.

    A) are changed by participating in a reaction
    B) are proteins, except for a few RNAs
    C) lower the activation energy of a reaction
    D) are proteins, except for a few RNAs and lower the activation energy of a reaction
    D) are proteins, except for a few RNAs and lower the activation energy of a reaction
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  189. One environmental factor that influences enzyme function is ____.

    A) temperature
    B) wind
    C) light
    D) radioactivity
    A) temperature
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  190. A metabolic pathway ____.

    A) all of these
    B) can include an electron transfer chain
    C) may build or break down molecules
    D) generates heat
    A) all of these
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  191. Which of the following statements is incorrect?

    A) All coenzymes are cofactors.
    B) Glucose can diffuse through a lipid bilayer.
    C) Osmosis is a case of diffusion.
    D) Feedback inhibition controls some metabolic pathways.
    E) Some metabolic pathways are cyclic.
    B) Glucose can diffuse through a lipid bilayer.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  192. Ions or molecules tend to diffuse from a region where they are ____ concentrated to another where they are ____ concentrated.
    More, less
  193. ____ cannot easily diffuse across a lipid bilayer.

    A) Gases
    B) Water
    C) Ions
    D) all of the above
    C) Ions
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  194. Transporters that require an energy boost help sodium ions across a cell membrane. This is a case of ____.

    A) active transport
    B) passive transport and facilitated diffusion
    C) passive transport
    D) facilitated diffusion
    A) active transport
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  195. If you immerse a red blood cell in a hypotonic solution, water will ___.

    A) diffuse out of the cell
    B) move in by endocytosis
    C) diffuse into the cell
    D) show no net movement
    C) diffuse into the cell

    Hypotonic is defined as having a lesser osmotic pressure in a fluid compared to another fluid. If a solution is hypotonic, that means it has a lower concentration of solution (with a higher concentration of water) than the cell, then water will defuse into the cell. If the solution were hypertonic, then the water concentration would lower (with a higher solute concentration), so water will defuse out of the cell.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  196. Fluid pressure against a wall or cell membrane is called ____.

    A) diffusion
    B) osmosis
    C) osmotic pressure
    D) turgor
    D) turgor
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  197. Vesicles form in ___.

    A) endocytosis and phagocytosis
    B) endocytosis
    C) exocytosis
    D) phagocytosis
    A) endocytosis and phagocytosis
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  198. In a land plant, most of the carbon dioxide used in photosynthesis comes from ___ .

    A) soil
    B) the atmosphere
    C) water
    D) glucose
    B) the atmosphere
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  199. ___ is/are the main energy source that drives photosynthesis.

    A) Carbon dioxide
    B) Oxygen
    C) Sunlight
    D) Hydrogen ions
    C) Sunlight
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  200. In the light-dependent reactions, ____.

    A) ATP forms
    B) carbon dioxide is fixed
    C) sugars form
    D) CO2 accepts electrons
    A) ATP forms
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  201. When a photosystem absorbs light, ____.

    A) RuBP accepts electrons
    B) it ejects electrons
    C)  sugar phosphates are produced
    D) electrons are transferred to ATP
    B) it ejects electrons
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  202. The atoms in the oxygen molecules released during photosynthesis come from ____.

    A) water
    B) hydrogen ions
    C) glucose
    D) carbon dioxide
    A) water
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  203. Is the following statement true or false? Plants make all of their ATP by photosynthesis.

    True
    False
    False
  204. After photosynthesis evolved, its by-product, ____, accumulated and changed the atmosphere.
    Oxygen
  205. Glycolysis starts and ends in the ____.

    A) nucleus
    B) mitochondrion
    C) plasma membrane
    D) cytoplasm
    D) cytoplasm
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  206. The Calvin–Benson cycle starts when ____.

    A) light is available
    B) carbon dioxide is attached to RuBP
    C) electrons leave a photosystem
    C) electrons leave a photosystem
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  207. In eukaryotes, aerobic respiration is completed in the ____.

    A) cytoplasm
    B) plasma membrane
    C) mitochondrion
    D) nucleus
    C) mitochondrion
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  208. In eukaryotes, fermentation is completed in the ____.

    A) cytoplasm
    B) mitochondrion
    C) plasma membrane
    D) nucleus
    A) cytoplasm
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  209. In the third stage of aerobic respiration, ____ is the final acceptor of electrons.

    A) NADH
    B) hydrogen
    C) oxygen
    D) water
    C) oxygen
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  210. Which of the following is not produced by an animal muscle cell operating under anaerobic conditions?

    A) lactate
    B) pyruvate
    C) NAD+
    D) heat
    E) ATP
    F) All are produced
    F) All are produced
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  211. Hydrogen ion flow drives ATP formation during ____.

    A) the Calvin–Benson cycle
    B) photosynthesis
    C) aerobic respiration
    D) fermentation
    E) photosynthesis and aerobic respiration
    E) photosynthesis and aerobic respiration
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  212. Your body cells can use ___ as an alternative energy source when glucose is in short supply.

    A) glycerol
    B) amino acids
    C) All of these
    D) fatty acids
    C) All of these
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)

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