Pathology exam 1
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What is pathology?
the study of molecular, biochemical, functional, and morphological changes in cells, tissues, or organs in response to injury.
"loss of ease"; a departure from normal
steps of how a disease develops
What does Pathology do?
- Bridges the gap between the basic sciences and the clinical sciences.
- Studies structural and functional changes in cells, tissues, and organs.
- Explains how/why clinical signs of disease are manifested.
There are a limited number of types and mechanisms of injury. Cells generally respond in one of 4 ways to injury:
- They get bigger (hypertrophy)
- They get smaller (atrophy)
- They proliferate (hyperplasia or neoplasia)
- They die (necrosis or autolysis)
Describe cardiac hypertrophy.
The number of myocardial fibers does not increase, but their size can increase in response to an increased workload.
reduced size but not a reduction in number of cells/fibers. Was once at a normal size.
Mesenchymal tissue does not tend to undergo _______________ as much as epithelial tissue.
Stroma means what type of tissue?
What type of cell/tissue death occurs in live patients?
What type of cell death occurs in dead patients?
human to human observation of the dead
human to other species observation of the dead
uncontrolled new growth
Cell___________ and cell___________are 2 biomedical phenomena responsible for up to 70% of human morbidity and mortality in the US.
- (either hyperplastic or neoplastic)
- heart attack
- loss of blood supply to myocardial fibers, typically coronary arteries are blocked.
- 40% of animal death
- loss of blood to the brain
- 10% of animal death
What is the focus of General pathology?
- cellular and tissue levels
- all organs
What is the focus of systemic pathology?
- organ-system level
- focuses on the organ(s) of a particular system
- ex. respiratory system
the study of structure, size, shape
What are the 4 aspects of a disease process that forms the core of pathology?
- morphologic changes
- clinical significance
primary cause of disease
mechanisms of development of a lesion or disease process.
structural alterations within cells, organs, or tissues associated with disease processes.
functional consequences of morphological changes.
We emphasize understanding etiology, pathogenesis, and tissue changes in terms of what?
- basic science
- clinical relevance
Describe the difference between clinical sign and symptom.
- Symptom is subjective-something associated with the disease process used to describe.
- Clinical sign is objective-measurable or observable by third party.
- And syndrome is the overlapping of the 2.
What 2 ways is etiology described?
- intrinsic factors
- acquired factors
- There is a degree of overlap between the 2. Etiologies that are complex and multifactoral, often involving gene-environmental interactions. (ex. obesity, artherosclerosis)
What are intrinsic factors?
What are acquired factors?
infectious, nutritional, chemical, physical
*The study of pathogenesis is one of the main domains of pathology. What is the reason?
- The sequence of events in the response of cells and tissues to etiologic agents.
- Progresses from initiation of stimulus to expression of disease.
- An abnormality or interruption of normal structure or function, or both.
- wide range of overlap with very few "pathognomonic" lesions
Diagnostic for a particular disease; a particular sign whose presence means (beyond any doubt) that a particular disease is present.
- singular pathognomonic are relatively uncommon
- ex koplik's spots in the mouth (measles)
describe necrosis vs. apoptosis
- necrosis is passive cell death that invokes inflammatory response.
- apoptosis is programmed cell death that doesnt invoke inflammatory response.
- Both are antimortem phenomena.
Describe morphologic diagnosis.
- descriptive name for a lesion or disease process
- encompasses size, distribution, severity, time frame, organ affected, process type
- ex. Canine, small intestine, enteritis, hemorrhagic, severe, segmental, acute
- multifocal in a tubular organ
- ex repro tract, intestinal tract
Describe etiologic diagnosis.
describe lesions and proclaim an etiologic agent (ex. viral enteritis)
Describe disease diagnosis.
A specific diagnosis that names the disease (parvovirus)
types of mechanisms of disease (lumps all organs together)
What are the types of pathology?
departure from ease; departure from normal function
the study of molecular, biochemical, functional, and morphologic changes in fluids, cells, tissues and organs in response to injury.
a change or discomfort or pain caused by disease that can be described to a clinician.
changes in behavior, excretion, secretion, or body condition that can be observed and/or measured by a clinician
An abnormal state of body chemistry, cells, or tissues. May be functional or morphological or both. One of the most common terms in pathology.
the cause of a disease state. may be bacterial, viral, toxic, etc
the step by step progression of a lesion from the normal state to a diseased one; concerns the mechanisms rather than the causes.
the prediction of the outcome of a disease; must understand pathogenesis for accuracy.
"Coming sharply to a climax"; changes (good or bad) occuring rapidly; doesnt mean severe, although many are severe; in real time, can mean anything from minutes to a few days.
Means long lasting; in real time, usually refers to weeks, months or years
"Not very acute"; imprecise, but handy to describe certain clinical situations.
Define differential diagnosis.
the exercise of listing (in an orderly fashion) all the possible diagnosis of a given condition; usually listed from most likely to least.
What are the 2 suffixes for pathological condition?
TeN DiSC SPaCeS
- T-tissue name or type
- N-number of lesions; gives estimate of severity
- D-distribution of lesions; focal, diffuse, focal to coalescing
- S-size of lesion(always metric)
- C-consistency; firm, fleshy, hard, soft, fluctuant
- S-shape; nodular, multinodular, umbilicated, paque
- P-pattern; relation to landmark (cranial ventral, bilateral, symmetrical)
- S-special features (filled with pus/blood)
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