Bio 3 Text Mosses

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  1. a.      Peat moss: __
                                                                  i.      Diverged early from the main line of __
                                                                ii.      More than __species
                                                              iii.      Distributed __, especially in __
    • Sphagnum
    • moss evolution
    • 400 
    • worldwide
    • wet areas
  2.                                                               i.      Sexual reproduction
    1.      Formation of __ and __ at the __ of special branches located at the tips of __

    2.      __in winter and __four months later
    • antheridia and archegonia
    • ends 
    • moss gametophytes
    • Fertilization 
    • discharge
  3. How are sporophytes distinctive?
    • 1.      Blackish-brown capsules that are spherical and raised on a stalk (the pseudopodium)
    • a.      Sporophyte has a very short seta, or stalk
  4. 1.      At the top of the capsule is an __, separated from the rest of the __
    a.      When mature, the capsule changes shape from __ to __
                                                                                                                                          i.      The __ builds to about __--> __blown off and __ up in an explosive burst
    • operculum
    • capsule by a circular groove
    • spherical to cylindrical
    • internal air pressure of the capsule
    • five bars
    • operculum 
    • gas carries spores
  5.                                                               i.      Sporophytes are __
    1.      __ is very common
    a.      __ and __ that break off from the __and injured leaves can __
                                                                                                                                          i.      Sphagnum forms __
    • distinctive
    • Asexual reproduction by fragmentation
    • Young branches and stem pieces
    • gametophyte 
    • regenerate new gametophytes
    • large, densely packed clumps
  6.                                                               i.      What’s different about them
    1.      The __, __, and __

    a.      The __—first stage of development of the gametophyte—does not consist of an __

                                                                                                                                          i.      Instead, each consists of a __, that grows by a __, in which most of cells can divide in__
    unusual protonema, the explsive operculum, and the morphology of the gametophyte


    extensive array of multicellular, branched filaments

    plate of cells, one cell-layer thick

    marginal meristem

     one of two directions
  7. a.      The stems of gametophytes bear __, often __, which are more densely tufted near the tips of the stem, resulting in a __
                                                                                                                                          i.      Both branches and stems bear __, but what is different?
    • clusters of branches
    • five at a node
    • moplike head
    • leaves
    • stem leaves often have little or no chlorophyll, whereas most branch leaves are green
  8. 1.      The leaves are __ and are composed of
    a.      Large, dead cells called __ with ringlike and spiral wall thickenings and
    b.      __ or __living cells, each with __
    • one cell-layer thick
    • hyaline cells
    • Narrow green or occassionaly red-pigmented 
    • discoid chloroplasts
  9.                                                      i.      Every dead cell is surrounded by a layer of ___, which form a __
                                                                                                                                                                                                                ii.      The walls contain __and become filled with __
    2.      The cells have __and __
                                                                ii.      Contribute to the __of their environment by releasing hydrogen ions; __ is usually less than four
                                                              iii.      Used to __ for plants (gardeners use it)
    • photosynthetic cells
    • network
    • pores 
    • water
    • antiseptic 
    • decay-resistant phenolic compounds
    • acidity  
    • pH 
    • retain water
  10.                                                               i.      One of the most abundant plants
    1.      Peatlands are important for the __ because they store large amounts of __ that is not readily decayed to CO2 by microorganisms
                                                                ii.      Peat is formed from accumulation and compression of mosses and sedges
    • carbon cycle
    • organic carbon
  11. a.      Granite mosses belong to __and occur in mountainous or arctic regions
    b.      “True mosses”
                                                                  i.      Explain
    1.      Can be distinguished from green algae by their __
    • Andreaeidae
    • The branching filaments of the protonemata are composed of a single row of cells and resemble filamentous green algae
    • slanted crosswalls
  12. a.      Leafy gametophytes develop from __
                                                                                                                                          i.      In a few genera, the __is persistent and assumes the major __, whereas the leafy shoots of the gametophyte are minute
                                                                ii.      __ can be small to large
    • minute budlike structures on the protonemata
    • protonema 
    • photosynthetic role
    • Moss gametophytes
  13.                                                               i.      All have __ and the leaves are usually __ at the __
                                                                ii.      In many mosses, the __of gametophytes and sporophytes have a central strand of __
    1.      The water-conducting cells are known as hydroids, which are elongated cells with inclined end walls that are thin and highly permeable to water, making them the preferred pathways for water and solutes
    • multicellular rhizoids
    • one cell-layer thick except at the midrib
    • stems 
    • water-conducting tissue called hadrom
  14. a.      Hydroids resemble the __, because __
    b.      Hydroids lack __
    • water-conducting tracheary elements of vascular plants
    • both lack a living protoplast at maturity
    • specialized, lignin-containing wall thickenings
  15. 1.      Food-conducting cells, called __, surround __
    a.      The food conducting tissue is called __
                                                                                                                                          i.      The __are elongated cells that have some structural and developmental similarities to the food-conducting sieve elements of seedless vascular plants
    1.      At maturity, both cell types have __ with __ and __ with __
    • leptoids
    • hydroids
    • leptom
    • leptoids
    • inclined end walls
    • small pores
    • living protplasts
    • degenerated nuclei
  16.                                                               i.      Sexual Reproduction
    1.      Involves production of __, an __, and __
    2.      Gametangia produced by __
    a.      Gametophytes may be __or have __
                                                                                                                                          i.      Antheridia clustered within leafy structures called __
    • male and female gametangia
    • unbranched matrotrophic sporophyte
    • specialized spore dispersal processes
    • mature leafy gametophytes
    • unisexual 
    • both on one plant
    • splash cups
  17. 1.      Moss sporophytes are borne on __, which do what?
    Foot embedded in __ and the cells of the boot and adjacent gametophyte function as __
    • gametophytes
    • supply the sporophytes with nutrients
    • tissue of the gametophyte
    • transfer cells in the placenta
  18. 1.      The __may reach 15-20 cm in length but can be short or absent in others; may contain __
    a.      __are normally present on the epidermis of moss sporophytes
    b.      Some moss stomata are bordered by only a __
    • setae 
    • hydroids and leptoids
    • Stomata 
    • single, doughnut-shaped guard cell
  19. 1.      The cells of the young and maturing sporophyte contain __ and carry out __
    a.      The sporophyte loses this ability and becomes __
    b.      The __is lifted upward with the __and eventually__, revealing the __, which also __, revealing the __surrounding the opening
                                                                                                                                          i.      The teeth do what?
    Movement exposes the __
    • chloroplasts
    • photosynthesis
    • parasitic on the gametophyte
    • calyptra 
    • capsule 
    •  falls off
    • operculum
    • bursts off
    • peristome 
    • curl when moist and uncurl when dry
    • spores
  20.                                                               i.      Asexual reproduction by __
    b.      Growth can be __  or __
                                                                  i.      If grown on another organism, it is __
    c.       Several can be __(limited in geographic area)
    • fragmentation
    • erect and little branched (terminal sporophytes)
    • highly branched and lateral sporophytes
    • epiphyte
    • endemic
Card Set:
Bio 3 Text Mosses
2014-04-07 02:39:32
Plant Kingdom
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