Health Science 2211- Module Lecture 4 (part 2)

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Health Science 2211- Module Lecture 4 (part 2)
2014-04-07 23:43:47
diabetes control programs

diabetes control program
Show Answers:

  1. what is pre-diabetes?
    occurs when patient's plasma glucose levels are higher than normal but not high enough for a diagnosis of diabetes.
  2. what does pre-diabetes mean?
    means patient is likely to develop diabetes and may already be experiencing the adverse health effects.
  3. what can be used to detect pre-diabetes?
    • fasting plasma glucose (FPG/ FBS)
    • oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)
  4. what are some main facts about patients with pre-diabetes?
    • often asymptomatic
    • intervening early can actually return elevated plasma glucose levels to normal range
    • should be checked for type 2 diabetes ever 1-2 years after diagnosis
  5. Patients with pre-diabetes can prevent or delay the development of type 2 diabetes by?
    lifestyle changes: changes in diet, increasing physical activity
  6. what are the goals for tertiary prevention?
    • glucose, blood pressure, lipid control to reduce development of complications
    • improve health status
    • achieve better clinical outcomes
    • improve cost-efficiency
  7. The cornerstone of tertiary prevention for diabetic patients is maintenance of blood glucose levels within normal limits by a combination of: (3)
    • insulin
    • anti-diabetic agents
    • diet and exercise
  8. what is some examples of tertiary prevention of microvascular/macrovascular complications of diabetes? (2)
    • regular eye examinations to prevent vision loss due to retinopathy
    • routine foot examinations and proper daily foot care
  9. what is the microalbumin test?
    • test that measures amount of protein called microalbumin in the urine
    • large amounts indicated kidney disease/damage
  10. what are the main lifestyle changes need upon diagnosis of diabetes? (tertiary prevention) (6)
    • self-monitor blood glucose
    • exercise
    • plan and eat healthy meals
    • stop smoking
    • limit alcohol
    • lower stress
  11. what are the 4 steps in self-management of diabetes?
    • regular blood-glucose monitoring
    • following a meal plan (healthy nutrition)
    • taking medication
    • getting regular exercise
  12. when should self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) take place? (3)
    • before meals and before taking insulin or medication
    • 2 hours after meals
    • before bedtime
  13. What are some ways insulin can be delivered for patients with type 1 and some type 2 diabetes?
    delivered by needle, syringe, insulin pen and insulin pump
  14. Type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetes that are at risk of developing type 2 diabetes may take what to prevent or treat long-term complications?
    take anti-diabetic medications
  15. whata re 4 things oral drugs do in your body in diabetes treatment?
    • increase insulin
    • increase insulin sensitivity
    • decrease absorption of glucose
    • decrease glucose storage release
  16. what function does biguanides, an oral anti-diabetic agents do have on lowering glucose levels?
    lowers glucose by decreasing liver glucose release and by decreasing cellular insulin resistance
  17. what function does alpha-glucose inhibitors, an oral anti-diabetic agents have on lowering glucose levels?
    slows digestion and absorption of carbohydrates to maintain normal blood glucose levels
  18. what function does meglitinides, an oral anti-diabetic agent have on lowering glucose levels?
    stimulates pancreas to secrete insulin
  19. what function does thiazolidinediones (TZD), an oral anti-diabetic agent have on lowering glucose levels?
    • increases insulin sensitivity at receptor sites on liver muscle and fats cells
    • make your cells more sensitive to insulin
  20. How specifically does biguanides lower glucose levels by decreasing liver glucose release and by decreasing cellular insulin resistance in the liver? (2)
    • 1. stimulates the binding of insulin to its receptors
    • 2. increases translocation of the glucose transporters in various tissues
    • both causing increased glucose uptake
  21. what are 3 complications of insulin treatment?
    • hypoglycemia
    • weight gain
    • deterioration of the retinopathy
  22. what are 3 challenges in the Canadian Health Care system? (tertiary prevention)
    • structure of system designed for acute care not chronic disease
    • healthcare under-funding is a barrier to diabetes care
    • challenges to keep up with complications management
  23. what are the challenges in the hospital based model? (tertiary prevention) (3)
    • reduced funding and increased demand
    • funding mechanismĀ is problematic
    • no formal evaluation on effectiveness
  24. what can communities do to reduce the chance of developing diabetes? (3)
    • promote physical activity , healthy eating and healthy weights
    • provide affordable recreational facilities
    • encourage local markets to provide better selections of healthy food
  25. what can physicians and health care professionals do to reduce the chance of developing diabetes? (3)
    • identify people at high risk of developing diabetes
    • recommend services and tests for diabetes patients
    • education for patients to prevent and reduce the risk
  26. what can governments do to reduce the chance of developing diabetes?
    • develop effective system to monitor the health impact of diabetes on the population
    • provide more funding for research in diabetes-related fields
    • more diabetes education programs to increase awareness
  27. The establishment of ________________ and the _______________ with increased funding was a major improvement in diabetes research.
    • Nutrition, metabolism, and diabetes
    • Aboriginal people's health institutes