chap 6, appraisal, collection of data

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  1. 2 types of data collection include
    • screening
    •     -activities or tests that identify if further testing is needed
    •     -often used with groups of children rather than 1 on 1
    • comprehensive evaluation
    •     -multiple activities or tests that give more specific detailed info
    •     -articulation test/stimulability measures
    •     -conversational speech
    •     -hearing testing
    •     -oral perif/speech mechanism examination
    •     -possible lang testing
    •     -artic tests
  2. what do you need to consider when choosing an artic assessment
    • 1. appropriateness for age or developmental level
    •     -difficult to assess children under 3
    •     -3-4 yo may be difficult to test even if it is normed on them
    •     -book notes that large colored pictures might work well, most don't do that
    •     -unusual for standardization beyond age 13
    • 2. ability to provide standardized score
    •     -most tests are not standardized so scores can't be compared to other children of similar age
    •     -list previously discussed give standardized scores
    • 3.  analysis of the sound errors
    •     -do they assess artic or phonology
    •     -format the same for both, but scoring is different, you can use an artic test and note the phonological process but it is harder to do
    • 4. includes adequate sample of thesound or sounds relevant to each person
    •     -is it general american english for a different pop
    •     -they dont test the most frequently missed sounds(s) in a large number of contexts
  3. how do you supplement for missing info
    transcribe the entire word when an error occurs in a word so even if the target sound is produced correctly, you have info on the part that is not produced correctly
  4. assessment procedures to supplement artic tests
    • 1. transcribe the full word when there is an error
    • 2. supplement the artic test with additional utterances that address the noted problems of the client: make sure that you test the target sounds in various positions and contexts
    •     use word lists
    •     commercial tests (mcdonald's deep test, secords c-pac)
    • 3. always sample and record continuous speech: remember that many tests only test words, it is important to determine if intelligibility increases or decreases
    • 4. determine the stimulability of the error sounds
  5. what are the 3 scoring systems for describing an error
    • two way scoring
    • five way scoring
    • phonetic transcription
  6. error scoring systems
    two way scoring
    • made between right and wrong production of the sound
    • pro- uses the give feedback and document progress in history
    • con-doesn't provide infor on the kind of aberrant artic happens
  7. error scoring systems
    five way scoring
    • classifies the production based on the type of error
    • correct or norm productions
    • deletion or omission
    • substitution 
    • addition
    • con-no examples of what is considered the norm, the category may include the presence not the absence of a sound, substitution and distortion are vague terms
  8. error scoring systems
    phonetic transcription
    • describes speech behavior with written symbols
    • pros-
    •     -more percise
    •     -give more info about the misartic
    •         -this info helps with assessment and intervention
    •     -most universally accepted way to share the info professionally
    •     -uses broad and narrow transcription
  9. stimulability testing
    • testing the individuals ability to produce a misartic sound in an appropriate manner when stimulated by the clinician
    •     -can be done in all positions in the words
    •     -often done as normal part of the testing
  10. what is stimulability testing used for
    • determine therapy goals and to predict if therapy would be beneficial
    •     -many teach the stimulable words first
    •     -may mean they are ready to develop on their own
    •     -studies showed that stimulability didn't necessarily mean they would be successful and in some cases, non-stimulable words were remediated very quickly
  11. spontaneous speech sample
    • while time consuming it can give added info for lang, voice and fluency
    • gives better info than just single words or short phrases
    •     -gives info on more complex oral motor organization
    • purpose is to compare the productions of single words with continuous speech and to ensure all sounds are tested
  12. how to conduct the speech sample
    • 1. begin with the artic test to note production in single words and perhaps phrases
    • 2. provide objects/pictures to elicit targeted sounds
    • 3. plan the length of the sample
    • 4. plan diversity into the sample
    • 5. monitor the recording 
    • 6. transcribe as much as you can during the sample to ensure accuracy
  13. evaluation of the speech mechanism
    oral perf for evaluation of function and structure
  14. what to look for in an evaluation of the speech mech
    • 1. examine the head and facial structure
    •     -brain match body size, reduced space for brain
    • 2. size, shape of lower portion of the skull including the jaw
    •     -micrognathia is a condition where the jaw is undersized
    •     -common in infants but usually self corrected during growth
    •     -look at symetry of facial features
    •     -proportion
    •     -appearance and overall shape of the structure being evaluated including eyes, nose, mouth etc
    •     -muscle tone
    •         -normal stat of resting muscle
    •         -drooping or flacidity should be explored
  15. evaluation of the speech mechanism
    examine breathing, what to look for
    • look for normal breathing habits
    • open or closed mouth breathing
    • should be no sign of 
    •     -clavicular breathing
    •     -sound of breathing
    •     -gasping or forced inhalations/exhalations
  16. evaluation of the speech mechanism:
    oral and pharyngeal cavity structures
    • teeth:
    •     -occlusion (normal=class I) lower molars are 1/2 of a tooth ahead of the upper molar
    •     -class II overbite
    •     -class III underbite
    • are all teeth present and in good repair
  17. evaluation of the speech mechanism:
    the tongue
    • structure
    • the size in raltion to the size of the oral cavity (too large=macroglosia, too smal=microglosia
    • color, muscle tone (anything less could indicate paralytic condition)
    • surface for smoothness (should be realtively smooth)
    •     -you can have psoriasis on your tongue
  18. functionality assessing the speech mechanism
    • evaluation of movement patterns of the artics
    • can they adequately perform the task
    • is the range of movements adequate
    • are the movements smooth and integrated
    • is the speed of movement within normal limits
    • diadochokinetic rate increases with age
    • movement of artics is voluntary and involuntary or are they impaired
    • childhood apraxia: lack of motor control
  19. hearing screening
    • ensure normal hearing
    • history including ear pain, otalgia, ear infections, otitus media, ear discharge, otorrhea
    • visually inspect ear to determine abnormalities of the head, neck, outer ear etc
    • air conduction tests at 20 db and 1. 2. 4000
  20. acoustic immittance measurement
    aural immittance (impedance) measurements of middle ear function and the acoustic reflex
  21. language testing
    can use the speech sample and info from family and teachers regarding performance and need for more testing
  22. language testing:
    what is not always used in language testing
    auditory discrimination is not always used-usually when 2 or more phonemic contrasts collapse into a single sound /w,r,l/ are all represented by w
  23. what are auditory discrimination skills described as
    • the ability to identify and distinguish between different sounds 
    •     -identify words and sounds that are simiilar and those which are different
  24. why is auditory discrimination important
    • first and foremost it is part of the ability to develop spoken lang, differentiating individual phonemes that can change the meaning of a word
    • when children begin to read, they need to be able to discriminate between the sounds
    • associated with different letters, as well as issues with spelling
  25. auditory memory
    is the ability to store and recall info which was given verbally. difficulties in this area may arise in not being able to follow instructions given verbally or may have trouble recalling info from a story aloud
  26. auditory sequencing
    ability to remember or reconstruct the order of items in a list or the order of sounds in a word or syllable. ie, saying or writing ephelant for elephant
  27. auditory sound blending
    the process of putting together phonemes to form words. ie, the individual phonemes c, a and t are blended to form the word cat
  28. discrimination testing and phonological performance analysis
    what do you need to have
    • 1. test items must be relevant or client oriented
    •     -should include tasks that concentrate on the areas of error that are specific to the child
    • 2. the specific aberrant production of the individual should be targeted
    •     -their production should be contrasted with the norm production
    • 3.  phonetic context in which the incorrect production occurred must be considered
  29. cognitive appraisal
    • if there is a question, refer to the psychologist to determine the cognitive skills of the individual 
    • the purpose of the appraisal is to assist in determining skills for change, determining differences, overall ability
  30. special considerations
    emerging phonological systems
    • reasons to be cautious
    • where they born at risk
    • do they have an identifiable developmental disorder such as down syndrome, other genetic disorders
    • lagging development
  31. artic tests and stimulability measures for those with special consideration
    • developmental delays make it difficult to assess
    • to assess,
    •     -have caregiver tape record at home both spontaneous and elicited
    •     -use objects child is familiar with
    •     -have caregiver keep log of productions
  32. what should you do if the child does not speak a lot
    • to assess
    •     -get a recording
    •     -build a rapport and find out what to talk about, particularly if the child is shy
  33. if the child does not like for people to look at their mouth
    • make it a game
    • let them look in your mouth
    • look at their eating habits and swallowing
    • babbling history
  34. if there are issues with hearing screening
    • maybe should be done by someone else, audiologist
    • train to the test
    • may need a hearing assessment by specialist
  35. if issues with additional tests, such as language skills test, you need to...
    • may need to use informal assessment strategies
    • look for developmental tests
    • assess in the natural setting
  36. analyzing the child's phonological system
    collection of data
    • inventory of speech sounds
    • all vowels and consonants
    • 1. syllable shapes and constraints
    •     -single sound productions that signify a word (vc or cvcv, cvc)
    • index of severity (of the phonological delay)
    •     -the number of different consonants and syllable shapes
    •     -represented in the individual's speech
  37. the unintelligible child
    • characteristics
    • cluster reductions
    • stridency deletion
    • stopping
    • gliding
    • vocalization of liquids
    • labial and nasal assimilations
    • hodson talked about the most unintelligible children were those who omitted whole classes of sounds
  38. how to transcribe an unintelligible child
    • 1. choose topic and try to structure the situation
    •     -use scripted events like retelling a show/movie, ho to do ()
    •     -model sentences and see if they can produce predictable info
    • 1, gloss the utterances (repeat them to ensure understanding)
Card Set:
chap 6, appraisal, collection of data
2014-04-07 01:33:49
445 phonology

445 phonology
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