A closed path along which electrons that are powered by an energy source can flow.
A source of energy that generates on electric current by chemical reactions involving two different metal or metal compounds separated by a solution that is a conductor.
A connection of two or more cells.
One of two metal terminals in a cell or battery.
A solution or paste that conducts charge.
A cell that contains an electrolyte that is a paste.
A cell that contains a liquid electrolyte.
A cell that can only be used once.
A cell that can be recharged.
A cell that generates electricity through the chemical reactions of fuel that is stored outside the cell.
A cell that converts sunlight into electrical energy.
Location on a cell that must be connected to other components to form a circuit.
A control device that can complete or break the circuit to which it is connected.
A circuit that contains a gap or break.
The rate of movement of electric charge.
The quantity of charge that is equal to the charge of 6.25 x 10^18 electrons.
The unit of electric current, equal to one coulomb per second. An ammeter is used to measure this value.
The property of a substance that hinders electric current and converts electrical energy to other forms of energy. Resistors are used to decrease electric current through a component by a specific amount.
A device used in an electric circuit to decrease the current through a component by a specific amount.
A resistor or any other device that transforms electrical energy into heat motion, sound, or light.
A light bulb is a load that turns electrical energy into light.
Potential Difference (voltage)
The difference between the electrical energy per unit of charge at two points in a circuit.
The unit of potential difference, equivalent to one joule (J) per coulomb (C).
i.e. Most cells are listed as having 1.5V of potential difference (even C and D size batteries).
A diagram that uses standard symbols to represent the components in an electric circuit and their symbols.
A circuit in which there is only one path along which electrons can flow.
A circuit in which there is more than one path along which electrons can flow.
The ratio of potential difference to current is a constant called resistance.
The unit of electrical resistance, equivalent to one volt per ampere (V/A).
A material through which electric charge can flow with no resistance.
Not following Ohm's Law.
Loads in Series
- Current is the same throughout the circuit
- Potential difference is split evenly through every load and equals the potential difference between the terminals of the cell
- Resistance increases as more loads are added to a series circuit
Loads in Parallel
- Potential difference is the same throughout the circuit
- The current entering loads that are connected in parallel is equal to the sum of the currents entering all loads
- The resistance of loads that are connected in parallel is less than the resistance of the smallest road