Bio 3 Text Ferns

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Bio 3 Text Ferns
2014-04-08 14:31:58
Plant Kingdom
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  1. a.      Largest and most diverse group of plants other than the __
                                                                  i.      Differentiation of modern ferns took place in __ after the formation of diverse forests of angiosperms increased the ferns range of habitat
    • angiosperms
    • Upper Cretaceous period
  2. Habitat
    •                                                               i.      Tropics (3/4); ferns are abundant in many plant communities
    •                                                             ii.      Temperate (1/4)
    •                                                           iii.      1/3 grow over trunks or branches of trees as epiphytes
  3. Structure
    •                                                               i.      Some small; have undivided elaves
    •                                                             ii.      Some have leaves with a long, twining rachis that may be up to 30 meters or more in length
    •                                                           iii.      Some tree ferns can reach heights of 24 meters and have leaves 5 meters or more in length; trunks may be 30 cm or more thick and their tissues are primary
  4. How many and what are they called of sporangia?

    • eusporangiate
    • leptosporangiate
  5. 1.      Eusporangium: the parent cells, or __, are located at the __ from which the sporangium is produced
    a.      Divide by the __,, producing an __
                                                                                                                                          i.      The outer cell layer, by further __, builds up the __of the __
                                                                                                                                        ii.      The inner layer gives rise to__ from which the __ cells ultimately arise
    1.      Innermost wall layer comprises __(provides nourishment to the developing spores)
    • initials
    • surface of the tissue
    • formation of walls parallel to the surface
    • inner and an outer series of cells
    • divisions in both planes
    • several-layered wall 
    • sporangium
    •  a mass of irregularly oriented cells
    • spore mother
    • tapetum
  6. a.      In many eurosporangia, the inner walls are __ during the course of development, so that the walls may apparently consist of a __ at maturity
    b.      They are larger than __and contain many more spores; they also are characteristic of all __—including the lycophytes—except for leptosporangiate
    • stretched and compressed
    • single layer of cells
    • leptosporangia 
    • vascular plants
  7. 1.      Leptosporangia: arise from a __, which divides __

    a.      The inner of the two cells produced by this may either __or more commonly, __
    • single superficial initial cell
    • transversely or obliquely
    • contribute cells that produce a large part of the sporangial stalk 
    • remain inactive and play no role in the further development of the sporangium
  8. a.      By a precise pattern of division, the outer cell gives rise to an __, with a __ having a wall that is one cell thick
                                                                                                                                          i.      Within this wall is the two-layered __characteristic of __
    1.      The inner mass of the __eventually differentiates into __, which undergo __to produce __ each
    • elaborate, stalked sporangium
    • spherical capsule
    • tapetum 
    • leptosporangia
    • leptosporangium 
    • spore mother cells
    • meiosis 
    • four spores
  9. a.      After nourishing the young dividing cells within the sporangium, material from the __is deposited around the spores, creating __
                                                                                                                                          i.      The spores are exposed after development of a __of the sporangium
    1.      The sporangia are __, and each contains a special layer of __ called an __
    • tapetum 
    • surface features
    • crack in the lip cells 
    • stalked
    • unevenly thick-walled cells called an annulus
  10. a.      As the sporangium dries out, __of the annulus causes __ in the __
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  i.      The sudden explosion and snapping back of the annulus to its original then results in a __
                                                                                                                                                                                                                ii.      In europsporangia, the stalks are __ and there is no __and no __ 
    • contraction 
    • tearing in the middle of the capsule
    • catapult-like discharge of the spores
    • more massive 
    • annulus 
    • catapult-like
  11. a.      Most living ferns are __, producing only one kind of spore
                                                                                                                                          i.      __, with both microspores and megaspores produced, is restricted to the water ferns
    • homosporous
    • Heterospory
  12. i. Eusporangiate Ferns: __
  13. 1.      Psilotopsida: the homosporous ferns, Ophioglossales and Psilotaes
    a.      A __ is produced each year from the stem consisting of a __and a __, which can be __in the same way as the vegetative portion and bears __ on the outermost segments
    • single leaf
    • vegetative portion (blade) 
    • fertile segment
    • dissected 
    • two rows of eusporangia
  14. a.      The sporophyte of Psilotum consists of a __with __ and a __, or a system of __with many __with may __
                                                                                                                                          i.      A symbiotic fungus—an __—is present in the __
    1.      The sporangia are generally aggregated in groups of three on the __
    • dichotomously branching aerial portion 
    • small scalelike “foliar” structures
    • branching underground portion
    • rhizomes 
    • rhizomes 
    • rhizoids
    • endomycorrhizal glomeromycete
    • outer cortical cells of the rhizomes
    • ends of short, lateral branches
  15. a.      The gametophytes of Psilotum, Botrychium, and Ophioglossum are __(3)__ structures with numerous __; they contain __
                                                                                                                                          i.      Some Psilotum gametophytes contain __
    1.      The gametophytes are __, bearing both antheridia and archegonia
    a.      The sperm are __and require water to swim to the eggs
    • subterranean, tuberous, elongated
    • rhizoids
    • symbiotic fungi
    • vascular tissue
    • bisexual
    • multiflagellated
  16. 1.      Homosporous Leptosporangiate Ferns
    a.       Most garden and woodland ferns of temperate regions have __ that produce new sets of leaves each year
                                                                                                                                          i.      The fern embryo produces a __, but this soon withers, and the rest o the roots arise from the __near the bases of the leaves
    • siphonostelic rhizomes
    • true root
    • rhizomes
  17.                                                                                                                                       i.      The leaves, or __, are __and the most noticeable
                                                                                                                                        ii.      Their high __ allows them to capture sunlight much more effectively than the __ of __
    1.      The ferns are the only __ to possess well-developed __
    2.      Commonly, the fronds are __; that is the __is divided into __, or __, which are attached to the __, an extension of the leaf stalk, or __
    3.      In nearly all ferns, the young leaves are __; they are reffered to as __
    • fronds
    • megaphylls 
    • surface- to-volume ratio
    • microphylls of lycophytes
    • seedless vascular plants
    • megaphylls
    • compound
    • lamina 
    • leaflets
    • pinnae
    • rachis
    • petiole
    • coiled (circinate)
    • fiddleheads
  18.                                               a.      This type of leaf development is called __
    b.      Uncoiling of the fiddlehead results from __ of the leaf early in development and is mediated by the __ produced by the young __on the inner side of the __
    2.      This type of vernation does what

    Both __ and __ are usually clothed with either __ or __, both of which are __
    • circinate vernation
    • more rapid growth on the inner that on the outer surface
    • hormone auxin
    • pinnae 
    • fiddlehead
    • protects the delicate embryonic leaf tip during development
    • fiddleheads and rhizomes
    • hairs or scales
    • epidermal outgrowths
  19. a.      The __occur on the margins or lower surfaces of the __, __, or __
                                                                                                                                          i.      They occur in clusters called __, which may also be covered by specialized outgrowths of the leaf, the __, which may __when the sporangia are ripe and ready to shed their spores
    • sporangia 
    • leaves, on specially modified leaves, or on separate stalks
    • sori
    • indusial
    • shrivel
  20. 1.      The shape of the __, its position, and the presence or absence of an __are important characteristics in the taxonomy of the Polypodiopsida
                                                                                                                                        ii.      The spores of ferns in this class give rise to __, whch are found in moist places,
    • sorus
    • indusium 
    • free-living, potentially bisexual gametophytes
  21. 1.      The gametophyte develops rapidly into a flat, heart-shaped, usually membranous structure, the __, that has numerous __on its central lower surface
    a.      Both antheridia and archegonia develop on the __
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  i.      the antheridia is more typical to occur among the __, while the archegonia are usually formed near the __, an indentation at the anterior end of the gametophyte
    • prothallus
    • rhizoids 
    • ventral surface fo the prothallus
    • rhizoids
    • notch
  22.   i.      the order of appearance of these gametangia is controlled __and can be mediated by __ produced by the gametophytes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                ii.      the timing of __ can determine what?
                                                                                                                                                                                                              iii.      water required for __
    • genetically 
    • special chemicals
    • maturation of the antheridia and archegonia
    • whether self-fertilization or cross-fertilization takes place
    • sperm to swim to eggs
  23.                                                                                                                                       i.      early in development, the embryo receives nutrients from the __through a __-->rapidly develops and the __ becomes an __ at which time the __
                                                                                                                                        ii.      typically, the sporophyte is the __ of ferns and the __ is __
    • gametophyte 
    • footà 
    • sporophyte becomes an independent plant
    • gametophyte disintegrates
    • pernnnial stage
    • small, thalloid gamete is short-lived
  24. 1.      Heterosporous Leptosporangiate Ferns
    a.      __ are these; only living heterosporous ferns
    b.      Have __, beanshaped reproductive structures called __, which may remain viable even after 100 years of dry storage, germinate when placed in water to produce chains of __, each bearing a __ and a __
                                                                                                                                          i.      Azolla is one
    • Water ferns
    • drought-resistant
    • sporocarps
    • sori
    • meta and a microsporangia
  25. 1.      Equisetophytes: Homosporous
    a.      The equisetophyte have a species of Equisetum, which are known as __and are widespread in moist or damp places, by streams, along edge of woods
                                                                                                                                          i.      __are easily recognized because of their __
    1.      The small, __ are whorled at the nodes
    • horsetails 
    • Horsetails 
    • conspicuously jointed stems and rough texture
    • scaleliek leaves
  26. a.      When present, branches arise __at the nodes and alternate with the leaves
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  i.      The __ are __, and the ribs are tough and strengthened with __ in the epidermal cells
    • laterally 
    • internodes are ribbed
    • siliceous deposits
  27. 1.      Has __, which arise from __ , and, although the plants may die back during unfavorable seasons, the rhizomes are __
    a.      The __ is complex anatomically
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  i.      At maturity, its internodes contain a __surrounded by a ring of smaller canals called __
                                                                                                                                                                                                                ii.      Each of these smaller canals is associated with a strand of __ and __
    • aerial stems
    • branching underground rhizomes
    • perennial
    • aerial stem
    • hollow pith 
    • carinal canals
    • xylem and phloem
  28.                                                                                                                                       i.      Sporangia are borne in groups of five to ten along the margins of small, umbrella-like structures known as __, which are clustered into __ at the __
    1.      The fertile stems of some species do not contain much __
    a.      In these species, the fertile stems are distinct from the __, often appearing before the latter early in the spring
    • sporangiophores
    • strobili (cones)
    • apex of the stem
    • chlorophyll
    • vegetative stems
  29. 1.      When the spores are mature, what do they do?
    a.      __—thickened bands that arise from the outer layer of the spore wall-coil when moist and uncoil when dry, playing a role in spore dispersal
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  i.      These are different __than those in Marcantia that help with __ (Marcantia has elaters with elongated cells and helically arranged wall thickenings)
    • the sporangia contract and spit along their inner surface, releasing numerous spores
    • Elaters
    • elaters 
    • spore dispersal
  30.   i.      Gametophytes are __and __in Equisetum and they range in diameter from a few millimeters to 1 centimerter or even 3 to 3.5 centimeters in some species
    1.      Gametophytes become established mainly on mud that has recently been flooded and is rich in nutrients
    • green 
    • freeliving
  31. a.      The gametophytes, which reach sexual maturity in three to five weeks, are either __
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  i.      In bisexual gametophtes, the __develop before the __, a developmental pattern that increases the probability of __
                                                                                                                                                                                                                ii.      The sperm are __and require water to swim to the eggs
                                                                                                                                                                                                              iii.      The eggs of several archegonia on a single gametophyte may be __and develop into __, or __
    • bisexual or male
    • archegonia 
    • antheridia
    • cross-fertilization
    • multiflagelated 
    • fertilized 
    • embryos
    • young sporophytes

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