A solid-bodied animal lacking a cavity between the gut and outer body wall. (no body cavity)
A com- plete digestive tract, consisting of a tube running between a mouth and an anus.
One of the dead-end air sacs where gas exchange occurs in a mammalian lung.
A small, toxic molecule (NH3) produced by nitrogen ﬁxation or as a metabolic waste product of protein and nucleic acid metabolism. ammonite A member of a group of shelled
Member of a clade of tetrapods named for a key derived character, the amniotic egg, which contains specialized membranes, including the ﬂuid-ﬁlled amnion, that protect the embryo. Amniotes include mammals as well as birds and other reptiles.
Member of the tetrapod class Amphibia, including salamanders, frogs, and caecilians.
anterior vs. posterior
Anterior is Pertaining to the front, or head, of a bilaterally symmetrical animal.
posterior is Pertaining to the rear, or tail end, of a bilaterally symmetrical animal.
A symbiotic fungus whose hyphae grow through the cell wall of plant roots and extend into the root cell (enclosed in tubes formed by invagination of the root cell plasma membrane).
The endoderm- lined cavity, formed during gastrulation, that develops into the digestive tract of an animal.
A vessel that conveys blood between an artery and a capillary bed
A segmented ecdysozoan with a hard exoskeleton and jointed appendages. Familiar examples include insects, spiders, millipedes, and crabs.
ascending limb of nephron
A reproductive appendage that pro- duces sexual spores on the gills of mushrooms (club fungi).
A network of capillaries in a tissue or organ.
An evolu- tionary trend toward the concentration of sensory equipment at the anterior end of the body.
A ﬂagellated feeding cell found in sponges. Also called a collar cell, it has a collar-like ring that traps food particles around the base of its ﬂagellum
Member of the class Chondrichthyes, vertebrates with skeletons made mostly of cartilage, such as sharks and rays.
Member of the phylum Chordata, ani- mals that at some point during their develop- ment have a notochord; a dorsal, hollow nerve cord; pharyngeal slits or clefts; and a muscular, post-anal tail
Member of the fungal phylum Chytridiomycota, mostly aquatic fungi with ﬂagellated zoospores that represent an early- diverging fungal lineage.
A specialized cell unique to the phylum Cnidaria; contains a capsule- like organelle housing a coiled thread that, when discharged, explodes outward and functions in prey capture or defense
A body cavity lined by tissue derived only from mesoderm
A fungus that lacks septa and hence whose body is made up of a continuous cytoplasmic mass that may contain hundreds or thousands of nuclei.
A haploid spore produced at the tip of a specialized hypha in ascomycetes during asexual reproduction.
An early, soft-bodied vertebrate with prominent eyes and dental elements.
The exchange of a substance or heat between two ﬂuids ﬂowing in opposite directions. For example, blood in a ﬁsh gill ﬂows in the opposite direction of water passing over the gill, maximizing diffusion of oxygen into and carbon dioxide out of the blood.
A chordate with a head.
descending limb of nephron
Referring to a fungal mycelium with two haploid nuclei per cell, one from each parent.
Member of an extremely diverse clade of reptiles varying in body shape, size, and habitat. Birds are the only extant dinosaurs
diploblastic vs. triploblastic
Diploblastic is referring to Having two germ layers.
triploblastic Possessing three germ layers: the endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm.
Pertaining to the top of an animal with radial or bilateral symmetry.
A circulatory system consisting of separate pulmonary and systemic circuits, in which blood passes through the heart after completing each circuit.
The outermost of the three primary germ layers in animal embryos; gives rise to the outer covering and, in some phyla, the nervous system, inner ear, and lens of the eye.
ectothermic vs. endothermic
Ectothermic is Referring to organisms for which external sources provide most of the heat for temperature regulation.
Endothermic is Referring to organisms that are warmed by heat generated by their own metabolism. This heat usually maintains a relatively stable body temperature higher than that of the external environment.
The innermost of the three primary germ layers in animal embryos; lines the archenteron and gives rise to the liver, pancreas, lungs, and the lining of the digestive tract in species that have these structures.
A fungus that lives inside a leaf or other plant part without causing harm to the plant
organisms are able to adapt to a wide range of salinities
Placental mammal; mammal whose young complete their embry- onic development within the uterus, joined to the mother by the placenta.
enzymes produced within the cell, then released outside of the cell to begin the process of extracellular digestion
A hard encasement on the surface of an animal, such as the shell of a mollusc or the cuticle of an arthropod, that provides protection and points of attachment for muscles.
A central cavity with a single opening in the body of certain animals, including cnidarians and ﬂatworms, that func- tions in both the digestion and distribution of nutrients.
gill vs. systemic circulation
gill circulation picks up oxygen and disposes of carbon dioxide across the capillary walls
systemic circulation is The branch of the circulatory system that supplies oxygenated blood to and carries deoxygenated blood away from organs and tissues throughout the body.
the paired respiratory organ of fishes and some amphibians, by which oxygen is extracted from water flowing over surfaces within or attached to the walls of the pharynx.
A ball of capillaries surrounded by Bowman’s capsule in the nephron and serving as the site of ﬁltration in the vertebrate kidney.
Member of the vertebrate subgroup possessing jaws.
Hagfish, the class Myxini, are eel-shaped, slime-producing, marine fish. They are the only known living animals that have a skull but no vertebral column.
In invertebrates with an open circulatory system, the body ﬂuid that bathes tissues.
A fungal mycelium that contains two or more haploid nuclei per cell.
Referring to a solution that, when surrounding a cell, will cause the cell to lose water.
One of many connected ﬁlaments that collectively make up the mycelium of a fungus.
Referring to a solution that, when surrounding a cell, will cause the cell to take up water.
The ﬂuid ﬁlling the spaces between cells in most animals.
An animal without a backbone. Invertebrates make up 95% of animal species
Referring to a solution that, when surrounding a cell, causes no net movement of water into or out of the cell.
In fungi, the fusion of haploid nuclei contributed by the two parents; occurs as one stage of sexual reproduction, preceded by plasmogamy.
Lampreys are an order of jawless fish, the adult of which is characterized by a toothed, funnel-like sucking mouth
Member of the clade Cephalochordata, small blade-shaped marine chordates that lack a backbone
A free-living, sexually immature form in some animal life cycles that may differ from the adult animal in morphology, nutrition, and habitat.
The portion of the respiratory tract containing the vocal cords; also called the voice box
lateral line system
A mechanoreceptor system consisting of a series of pores and receptor units along the sides of the body in ﬁshes and aquatic amphibians; detects water movements made by the animal itself and by other moving objects.
Member of the vertebrate clade Sarcopterygii, osteichthyans with rod- shaped muscular ﬁns, including coelacanths, lungﬁshes, and tetrapods.
A unique excretory organ of insects that empties into the digestive tract, removes nitrogenous wastes from the hemolymph, and functions in osmoregulation.
Member of the class Mammalia, amniotes that have hair and mammary glands
One of a pair of jaw-like feeding appendages found in myriapods, hexapods, and crustaceans.
A mammal, such as a koala, kangaroo, or opossum, whose young complete their embryonic development inside a maternal pouch called the marsupium.
The middle primary germ layer in a triploblastic animal embryo; develops into the notochord, the lining of the coelom, muscles, skeleton, gonads, kidneys, and most of the circulatory system in species that have these structures.
A devel- opmental transformation that turns an animal larva into either an adult or an adult-like stage that is not yet sexually mature.
An excretory organ found in many invertebrates that typically consists of tubules connecting ciliated internal openings to external openings.
An egg-laying mammal, such as a platypus or echidna. Like all mammals, monotremes have hair and produce milk, but they lack nipples.
The densely branched network of hyphae in a fungus.
A mutualistic association of plant roots and fungus.
General term for a fungal infection.
In a cnidocyte of a cnidarian, a capsule-like organelle contain- ing a coiled thread that when discharged can penetrate the body wall of the prey.
the hollow dorsal tract of nervous tissue that constitutes the central nervous system of all chordates
In vertebrates, a region located along the sides of the neural tube where it pinches off from the ectoderm. Neural crest cells migrate to various parts of the embryo and form pigment cells in the skin and parts of the skull, teeth, adrenal glands, and peripheral nervous system.
A longitudinal, ﬂexi- ble rod made of tightly packed mesodermal cells that runs along the anterior-posterior axis of a chordate in the dorsal part of the body.
open vs closed circulatory system
Open Cirvulatory system is A circulatory system in which ﬂuid called hemolymph bathes the tissues and organs directly and there is no distinction between the circulating ﬂuid and the interstitial ﬂuid.
closed circulatory system is A circulatory system in which blood is conﬁned to vessels and is kept separate from the interstitial ﬂuid.
In aquatic osteichthyans, a protective bony ﬂap that covers and protects the gills.
An animal that is isoosmotic with its environmen
An animal that controls its internal osmolarity independent of the external environment.
A form of asexual reproduction in which females produce offspring from unfertilized eggs
Pharyngeal slits are used by organisms to filter food particles from water
A structure in the preg- nant uterus for nourishing a viviparous fetus with the mother’s blood supply; formed from the uterine lining and embryonic membranes.
In fungi, the fusion of the cytoplasm of cells from two indi- viduals; occurs as one stage of sexual reproduc- tion, followed later by karyogamy.
polyp vs medusa
Polyp is The sessile variant of the cnidarian body plan.
medusa is The ﬂoating, ﬂattened, mouth-down version of the cnidarian body plan.
Positive vs. negative pressure breathing
breathing system in which air is forced into the lungs
negative pressure breathing is A breathing system in which air is pulled into the lungs
An excretory system, such as the ﬂame bulb system of ﬂatworms, consisting of a network of tubules lacking internal openings.
An animal whose body cavity is lined by tissue derived from mesoderm and endoderm.
pulmocutaneous vs. systemic circuit
pulmocutaneous circuit is A branch of the circulatory system in many amphibians that supplies the lungs and skin
systemic circuit is The branch of the circulatory system that supplies oxygenated blood to and carries deoxygenated blood away from organs and tissues throughout the body.
radial vs. bilateral symmetry
Symmetry in which the body is shaped like a pie or barrel (lacking a left side and a right side) and can be divided into mirror-imaged halves by any plane through its central axis.
Bilateral symmetry is the Body symmetry in which a central longitudinal plane divides the body into two equal but opposite halves.
A straplike scraping organ used by many molluscs during feeding.
Member of the class Actinopterygii, aquatic osteichthyans with ﬁns supported by long, ﬂexible rays, including tuna, bass, and herring.
In excretory systems, the recovery of solutes and water from ﬁltrate.
respiratory surface is the region where gaseous exchange occur.
One of the cross-walls that divide a fungal hypha into cells. Septa generally have pores large enough to allow ribosomes, mitochondria, and even nuclei to ﬂow from cell to cell.
The sinuses are cavities in the skull located around the eyes and behind the nose
In lichens, a small cluster of fungal hyphae with embedded alga
an organism, usually fish, that cannot tolerate a wide fluctuation in the salinity of water
In aquatic osteichthyans, an air sac that enables the animal to control its buoyancy in the water
vertebrate clade whose members have limbs with digits. Tetrapods include mammals, amphibians, and birds and other reptiles.
In insects, a system of branched, air-ﬁlled tubes that extends throughout the body and carries oxygen directly to cells.
One of numerous extensions of an echinoderm’s water vascular system. Tube feet function in locomotion and feeding.
Member of the clade Urochordata, sessile marine chordates that lack a backbone.
A soluble nitrogenous waste produced in the liver by a metabolic cycle that combines am- monia with carbon dioxide
A product of protein and purine metab- olism and the major nitrogenous waste prod- uct of insects, land snails, and many reptiles. Uric acid is relatively nontoxic and largely insolubl
The ﬂow of air or water over a respiratory surface.
Pertaining to the underside, or bottom, of an animal with radial or bilateral symmetry
A vessel that conveys blood between a capillary bed and a vein
A chordate animal with a backbone, including sharks and rays, ray-ﬁnned ﬁshes, coelacanths, lungﬁshes, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals.
water vascular system
A network of hydraulic canals unique to echinoderms that branches into extensions called tube feet, which func- tion in locomotion and feeding.
Flagellated spore found in chytrid fungi and some protists.