physiology exam 3

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physiology exam 3
2014-04-06 23:56:35
chapter 8
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  1. ventricles
    • fluid filled chambers in the interior of the brain
    • contain cerebrospinal fluid
  2. Gray Matter is made up of ___
    • Cell Bodies
    • Dendrite
  3. gray matter is on the _____ ____ of the brain
    outer cortex
  4. white matter is made of
  5. white matter forms ____
    most of the interior of the brain
  6. the largest part of the brain is the
    • Cerebrum
    • it is 80% of total brain mass
  7. what do Dendrites do
  8. what are the cell bodies in the gray matter responsible for?

    • Dendrites "Receive"
    • Cell Bodies "Process"
  9. Frontal Lobe
    • Voluntary¬†muscle movement
    • Concentration
    • Verbal Communication
    • Decision Making
    • Planning
  10. The frontal lobe contains _____
    the motor cortex
  11. Parietal Lobe
    • perception of somatosensory senses
    • Touch
    • Pressure
    • Pain
    • Temperature
  12. the frontal lobe contains the
    Somatosensory Cortices
  13. Temporal Lobe
    • Auditory Cortex
    • Perception and Interpretation of auditory and olfactory information
  14. Occipital Lobe
    • Visual Cortex
    • Perception and interpretation of visual images
  15. Insula
    • Interpretation of gustatory information
    • Integration of pain sensations with visceral responses
    • Mirror Neurons
  16. the motor and somatosensory cortices process info for areas through the body.
    describe fine sensation and less sensory acuity
    • the amount of cortex dedicated to¬†a body region is often disproportionate to the size of that region.
    • more cortices on lips and hands equals fine sensation
    • the back and legs have less cortices so those parts of the body have less sensory acuity
  17. cerebral lateralization
    • contralateral sensory perception and motor control
    • Specialization in higher brain functions
    • Left - language and analytical ability (CATEGORICAL)
    • Right - spatial comprehension (REPRESENTATIONAL)
  18. think of the thalamus as the
    • switch board operator (Except Smell)
    • thalamus is Sensory Relay
    • allows you to tune things out
  19. where is melatonin produced?
    Pineal gland
  20. Memory
    • 2 basic forms
    • Short term and Long term
  21. Short term memory
    • less than 30 sec
    • hippocampus is required for retention
  22. long term memory
    • greater than secs
    • there are 2 types of long term memory
    • Non-Declarative: memory of simple skills and conditioning (putting on shirt, tie shoe, drive car)
    • Declarative: Memory of facts and events
  23. Thalamus
    • receives all sensory info destined for the cerebral cortex (except smell)
    • Relays the info to the appropriate area of the cortex
  24. Hypothalamus
    • Motivational Behavior (hunger, Thirst, Body Temp...)
    • Emotions (Anger, Fear, Pleasure)
    • Neural Control of the Pituitary hormone release
    • Controls Circadin Rhythms (with pineal gland)
  25. Pons
    regulation of breathing
  26. Cerebellum
    • Fine Tunes Muscle Movement
    • receives info from proprioceptors (pressure sensors in muscles, tendons and joints)
    • Coordination of body movements
    • Maintaining posture and balance
    • motor skills/Muscle memory
  27. Medulla Oblongata
    • relay for ascending and descending info between the brain and the spinal cord
    • Survival Functions (cardiac, respiratory & vasomotor centers)
    • regulates HR, contractile force
    • Regulates respiration
    • Controls blood vessel diameter and blood pressure
  28. the hindbrain is made up of
    Brain Stem (Pons, Cerebellum, Medulla Oblongata
  29. Reticular Activating System
    • network of neurons in medulla, pons, midbrain, thalamus and hypothalamus
    • activated by receipt of sensory info
    • induces nonspecific arousal to cerebrum (Promotes wakefulness)
    • Inhibited by GABA-releasing neurons in hypothalamus (Promotes Sleep)
  30. how many pairs of spinal nerves
    31 pairs of spinal nerves
  31. spinal cord
    • links brain to the peripheral nervous system
    • controls some involuntary functions (spinal reflexes)
    • Protected by vertebral column and meninges
    Dorsal Afferent Ventral Efferent
  33. reflex arcs are controlled by
    • the spinal cord NOT the brain
    • they help maintain balance and muscle tone
    • they are evaluated with "jerk" tests
  34. the central nervous system consists of
    • brain
    • spinal cord
  35. the areas associated with Language are
    • Broca's Area
    • Wernicke's Area
  36. Broca's Area
    • LOcated in the left inferior frontal lobe
    • Coordinates complex fine motor functions involved in speech
    • Control of tongue, lips...
    • Damage leads to Broca's Aphasia (slow, poor articulated speech)
  37. Wernicke's Area
    • Located in left Superior temporal lobe
    • Responsible for ability to comprehend language and formulate words
    • Damage leads to Wernicke's aphasia (inability to comprehend spoken or written language and inability to assemble words into coherent language)
  38. Limbic System
    • Largely involved with emotion
    • Agression
    • Fear
    • Sex Drive
    • Goal Oriented Behaviior