Chapter 1 - Pharmacology
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Where do today's drugs come from?
- Natural sources
- Chemical Synthesis
Name some medications that come from plants:
Name some medications that come from animals:
Name some medications that come from minerals:
- Silvadene Cream - silver salts
- Solganal - gold
2 Types of synthetic Drugs:
- Synthetic - made from lab chemicals
- Semi-synthetic - made from natural substance that is altered by a chemical process
Give an example of a synthetic drug:
Give an example of a semi-synthetic drug:
Name some drugs produced by biotechnology:
- Proteins from bacteria
What is therapeutic action?
What the drug does for the patient
What is Physiologic action?
What they drug does in the body
What is the "Affected Body System?"
What the drug effects in the body
What is the chemical type of a drug?
What the drug "is"
What must a prescription include?
- Name of patient
- Name of drug
- Route of Administration
- Prescriber's Signature
- Name, Address, Telephone Number and DEA number of prescriber
- Must be written on a pre-printed prescription pad
What are standing orders?
Protocol, used in common situations requiring standard treatment
What are verbal orders?
Common place in surgery. Occurs when surgeon asks for something not written down.
What are STAT orders?
Drug should be administered IMMEDIATELY and one time only
What are PRN orders?
pro re nata, means that a drug may be given as needed
What is a crash cart?
Cart with medications and instruments used during a cardiac emergency
What is a pixis?
Machine that dispenses medication by scanning the barcode.
What are the forms drugs are available in?
- Solid - slowest acting, capsule, tablet, rarely used in surgery.
- Semi-solid - powder form that must be reconstituted, commonly used in surgery. Also includes creams, gels, foams, ointments and suppositories
- Liquids - Available in solutions and suspensions and emulsions
- Gases - Fastest acting, nitrous oxide, Suprane
What is enteral?
Medication will be taken into the gastrointestinal tract
What is topical?
Medication will be applied to the skin, or mucous membrane lined cavity. Includes inhalation of a drug.
What is parenteral?
Medication taken by any route other than digestive track, usually intramuscular, subcutaneous, or intravenous
What is the simplest/most common way to administer drugs?
What is local effect?
Medication works at the site of application
What is systemic effect?
Medication works through out the body
What is an NSAID?
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug
What is a bolus?
Very large dose of medicine
Name some parenteral routes of medication administration:
- Intra-dermal - injections given between layers of the skin, TB skin testing
- Intra-articular - anti-inflammatory agents injected into the joint cavity
- Intra-thecal - anesthetics or contrast media injected into the spinal subarachnoid space
What are the 4 processes of Pharmacokinetics?
- Absorption - Varies due to administration route and blood supply to the area
- Distribution - Circulatory System
- Metabolism - Liver
- Excretion - Kidney
What is pharmacokinetics?
Study of how the body processes drugs
What are pharmacodynamics?
Examines how the body responds to the action of a drug
What is bio-availability?
The degree to which the unchanged drug molecule reaches systemic circulation
What is plasma protein binding?
When drug molecules bind to proteins contained in the plasma
How are most drugs eliminated from the body?
In urine, but sometimes in bile, feces or skin
What is an agonist?
Drugs that bind to or have an affinity for a receptor and cause a particular response
What is an antagonist?
Drugs that bind to a receptor and prevent responses
What is a synergist?
A drug that enhances the effect of another drug
What is an indication?
The reason or purpose for giving a medication
What is a contraindication?
Reason for NOT giving a medication
What is onset?
The time between administration of a drug and the appearance of its effects
What is duration?
The length of time between onset and the disappearance of drug effects
What is a side effect?
an expected, but unintended response to a drug
What is an adverse effect?
Undesired, potentially harmful side effect of a drug
What is drug hypersensitivity?
Adverse effect resulting from a previous exposure to a drug or similar drug
What is an idiosyncratic effect?
Rare and unpredictable adverse reactions to drugs
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