Chapter 5

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Chapter 5
2014-04-07 19:42:41
Key words and stuff to remember
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  1. Interact with OS through what?
    User interface- desktop, icons and menus
  2. Operating System (6 things)
    Manages hardware and peripherals, makes app software work with CPU, responsible for management, scheduling and coordination of tasks.
  3. Utility program performs what?
    general housekeeping tasks like maintenance and file compression.
  4. Machinery that performs a repetitive series of specific tasks in an exact amount of time
    real-time operating system (RTOS) or embedded systems
  5. What kind of OS do networks use?
    Multiuser OS aka network OS.- lets more than one user access the computer system at a time by handling and prioritizing requests from multiple users.
  6. The latest versions of Windows and OS X can be considered network OSs:
    They enable users to set up basic networks in their homes and small businesses
  7. Examples of network OSs include:
    Windows Server, Linux and UNIX.
  8. UNIX 1969 Thompson and Ritchie of AT&T
    multi user/task OS. Used with mainframes and PCs. Now belongs to the company Open Group but any vendor who meets testing requirements and pays a fee can use its name and modify the code.
  9. What other kinds of computers require a multiuser OS?
    Mainframes and supercomputers.
  10. What are the top 3 OSs for personal computers?
    Microsoft Windows, OS X and Linux (open source OS).
  11. What's so special about the Mac OS?
    In 1984 was the first commercially available to incorporate GUI with point-and-click technology.
  12. OS X is based off of what operating system?
    UNIX- stable and reliable.
  13. What is Linux? (3 parts)
    1991. Linus Torvalds created it but it has since been tweaked by programmers as part of the Free Software Foundation GNU Project.
  14. Where can I get Linux?
    Available for download in packages: distributions or distros. Distros include the underlying Linux kernel (it's basic function code)
  15. Computer's platform
    The combination of an OS and a specific processor.
  16. A standard utility included in OS X called _ lets you boot into either _ or _
    Boot Camp, Windows or OS X.
  17. To run both Windows and OS X at the same time you create _ _ using _ software like: _ or _
    Virtual drives, virtualization software, Parallels or VMware Fusion.
  18. In Windows you can create a separate section of your _ _ called a _.
    Hard drive, partition.
  19. Chrome is only available on _
    open source product which allows companies to make private clouds.
  21. The first computers used _ _ _ which had a _ _-_ and was improved with _-_ _
    Microsoft Disk OS, command-driven interface, menu-driven interface
  22. The printer generates a signal called _ which is associated with an _ _
    Interrupt- for immediate attention, interrupt handler.
  23. Interrupt handler
    A special numerical code that prioritizes the requests and are in an interrupt table in the RAM.
  24. Preemptive multitasking
    OS processes a high priority tasks before low.
  25. A reminder for the CPU of what it was doing before an interrupt
    Memo or "stack"
  26. Another temporary storage area in RAM for interrupt requests.
  27. Spooler
    A program that helps coordinate the printer tasks.
  28. The process of optimizing RAM storage by borrowing hard drive space is called _ _
    Virtual memory
  29. A temporary storage on the hard drive
    Swap or Page file.
  30. Thrashing
    The condition of excess paging.
  31. Device driver
    Facilitates communication between the peripheral device and the OS.
  32. Plug and Play (PnP)
    Included in Windows. Software and hardware standard designed to facilitate the installation of new hardware in PCs
  33. Removes a newly installed driver and replaces it with the last one that worked
    Roll Back Driver
  34. Application programming interface (API)
    blocks of code in the OS the application software needs in order to interact with the CPU.
  35. Microsoft DirectX
    A group of multimedia APIs built into the Windows OS that improves graphics and sounds.
  36. What are the advantages of APIs?
    • Prevent redundancies in software code
    • Easier to create software applications
    • Easier to respond to OS changes
    • Data exchange between two programs
  37. What are the steps to the boot process?
    • Activating BIOS
    • Performing the Power-on-self-test
    • Loading the OS
    • Checking further configurations and customizations
  38. Basic input/output system (BIOS)
    First of the boot process. Stored on ROM chip on motherboard. Program that manages the exchange of data between the OS and all input/output devices attached to the system. Loads OS into RAM.
  39. First job of the BIOS
    Power-on self-test (POST): ensures that essential peripheral devices are attached and operational.
  40. The BIOS compares the POST with _
    Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS): where various hardware configurations are permanently stored. Uses almost no power. Contains: info about system memory, types of disk drives, essential input/output hardware components.
  41. How does OS get loaded into RAM?
    BIOS searches for the system files (the main files of the OS). Then loads it onto RAM and then the kernel (supervisor program) is loaded.
  42. Kernel
    Or supervisor program is the essential component of the OS and manages the processor and all other components of the computer system.
  43. Memory resident vs non-resident
    • Memory resident is the kernel which stays in RAM. 
    • Non-resident is on the hard drive on an as-needed basis.