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  1. Prenatal Period
    Time between conception and birth, pregnancy
  2. Conception
    Moment when a sperm enters an egg; fertilization
  3. Uterus
    Female reproductive organ that protects the developing human during pregnancy
  4. Placenta
    • Organ that develops in the uterus during pregnancy that connects the uterus to the embryo/fetus via the umbilical cord
    • It transfers nutrients and oxygen to embryo/fetus
    • Removes wastes from embryo/fetus
  5. Pica
    • Craving (and eating) nonfood substances such as laundry starch, coal, cigarette ashes and dirt
    • May be associated with iron and zinc deficiencies
  6. Increaed Need For Folate
    • Recommendation increases during pregnancy
    • Neural tube defects (NTD)
    • Anencephaly
    • Spina bifida
    • Enrichment of grain products
  7. Increased Need for Vitamin B12
    • Assists folate with manufacture of new cells
    • Critical periods
  8. Increased Need For Vitamin D
  9. Increased Need for Calcium
    • Absorption doubles during pregnancy 
    • Recommendations are aimed at preserving maternal bone mass
  10. Increased Need For Iron
    • Needs of fetus take priority
    • Enhancing absorption
  11. Listeriosis
    • Miscariage/stillbirth
    • Foods to avoid: Raw milk/soft cheeses
  12. Alcoholic Beverages Drug Use
    Increase risk of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder
  13. Smoking Cigarettes
    • Increases risk of preterm low birth weight infants
    • Increases risk of SIDS
  14. Abuse of Illegal Drugs
    Should be stopped before pregnancy
  15. Herbal Supplements
    Should be used only with physician's permission
  16. Prenatal Care
    Specialized health care for pregnant women that can detect problems
  17. Gestational Diabetes
    • Type 2 diabetes that develops during pregnancy
    • Excess glucose is delivered to fetus, resulting in large infant with excess body fat
    • Occurs in 3-8% of pregnancies
  18. Pregnancy-Induced Hypertension
    • Major sign is rapid weight gain after 5th month of pregnancy
    • Leading cause of pregnancy-related death
    • Occurs in 6-8% of pregnancies
  19. Tooth Decay
    • Results from infants being put to bed with a bottle of formula, juice, or any sugar-sweetened drink (Nursing Bottle Syndrome)
    • Sugar bathe teeth, providing a source of nutrients for bacteria that causes tooth decay
  20. Picky Eaters
    • Avoid nagging, forcing, or bribing
    • Taste buds for kids & parents are different
  21. Food Jags
    • Expression of independence
    • Only eating 1 food
  22. Food neophobia
    Don't like new food
  23. Iron Deficiency
    Anemia can result in decreased stamina, learning ability, and resistance to infections
  24. Dental Caries - Cavity
    Many preschool children have caries before entering kindergarten
  25. Allergies
    Common allergens are peanuts, tree nuts, fish, shellfish, milk, eggs, soybeans, and wheat
  26. DASH Diet
    Diet to stay away from salt
  27. Physical Perils
    • Blood lipids
    • Hypertension
    • Cardiorespiratory Fitness
    • Asthma
  28. Emotional perils
    • Discrimination 
    • Rejection
  29. Intestinal Tract Problems
    Constipation is a major complaint of older adults
  30. Depression in Older Adults
    18% of women and 10% of men age 65 depressed
  31. Excels as Source of Nutrients (Vitamin D)
    Easily Digested
    Why is Breast Milk so good for Babies?
  32. Colostrum
    • A premilk substance that contains antibodies and white blood cells, protects infant using Mother's Immunity
    • Only happens when having a baby
  33. Breastfeeding
    • Immunity
    • Protein easily absorbed
    • High in Vit. C
    • Low in Sodium
    • Iron & Zinc easily absorbed
    • Lactation specialists (if a women can't breastfeed, they get help)
  34. Formula
    • Developed to mimic breast milk nutrients
    • Use cow's milk as base
    • Preemies & Allergies
    • Agresive advertising
  35. Smokers' Breastfeeding (When should a mother not breastfeed)
    • Less milk
    • Lower fat content
    • Transfers Nicotine
    • Secondhand smoke
  36. Sickness/Disease Breastfeeding (When should a mother not breastfeed)
    HIV - can be passed through breast milk - up to 300,000 cases a year get HIV by breastfeeding
  37. Medications Breastfeeding (When should a mother not breastfeed)
    • Go off nursing while using it
    • Breast pump
  38. Oral Contraceptives Breastfeeding (When should a mother not breastfeed)
    • Estrogen/Progestin = suppressed milk output
    • Nitrogen Content
    • Progestin only ok
  39. Attachment Parenting
    • Breastfeeding until child weans themselves
    • Sleep in same bed
    • Physical Contact
    • Legal issues - after age 5, it's illegal to breastfeed a child
  40. Okinawa Diet
    • 7 servings of vegetables and whole grain daily - 72% of diet
    • Soy and seaweed - 14%
    • Fish - 11%
    • Meat, Poultry, and eggs - 3%
  41. Lifestyle of Okinawa People
    • Martial arts
    • Dance
    • Farming and gardening
    • Spiritual and religious values
    • Status of women high
    • Universal health care system
  42. Difference of Okinawa Diet and Japanese Diet
    • They consume 10-20% fewer calories than Japan
    • 300% more fruits and vegetables than Japan
    • Sweet potatoes instead of rice as a staple
    • Diet is mostly plant based
  43. 1. Regular life-long physical activity
    2. Mostly plant-based diet
    3. Use of Hara Hachi Bu
    4. Knowing the Calorie density of foods
    4 guiding principles
  44. Hara Hachi Bu
    • Stop eating when you are 80% full (stop eating when you're not hungry instead of stop eating when you're full)
    • Stomach stretch receptors - 20 mins to register
    • If hungry after 20mins, eat more
  45. Featherweights
    • "Eat as much as you want"
    • Vegetable soup
    • Green tea and asparagus 
    • Broccoli, squash, and veggies
    • Tofu
  46. Lightweights
    • "Eat in moderation"
    • Cooked grains
    • Sushi
    • Cooked beans
  47. Middleweights
    • "Eat in smaller portions"
    • Hummus in small proportion
    • Whole wheat bagel
    • Raisins
  48. Heavyweights
    • "The most dangerous, eat sparingly" 
    • Cheddar cheese
    • Bacon
    • Butter
  49. Ergogenic Aid
    Any external aid that can enhance performances
  50. Concentrate processing
    Least processed, usually 80-90% protein
  51. Isolate Processing
    Almost all lactose, fat removed
  52. Hydrolysate Processing
    Highly processed; proteins already broken down to peptides
  53. Post workout "window"
    • Protein synthesis is increased after training
    • "fast" proteins combined with high GI CHO's result in the largest spikes
    • Milk makes a postworkout drink as it has 20% whey
  54. Creatine
    • Occurs naturally in muscle
    • Provides energy for activities lasting more than 10 seconds
    • Animal proteins provided created in diet
  55. How Creatine Works
    • Increases energy stores in muscles for short, intense activites
    • Proposed mechanisms for increased growth:
    • 1) Improved endurance for lifting
    • 2) Draws water into muscles
  56. Benefits for Creatine
    • Increased muscle growth
    • Improved endurance for short spirits, similar activities
    • Improved recovery
    • Improved cognitive abilities
  57. Drawbacks for Creatine
    • Cramps, possibly related to fluid drawn into muscles -eliminated with extra hydration
    • Hundreds of studies in the last 20 years, no other documented problems
  58. Anabolic steroids "Building"
    • Increase in protein synthesis
    • Decrease in protein breakdown
    • Stimulate bone marrow --> Increase in muscle size, improved recovery, increase in metabolism
  59. Androgenic Steroids "Masculine characteristics"
    • Deepening of voice
    • Promote male-pattern baldness
    • Acne
    • Occurs in both men and women
  60. HGH
    • Synthetic version of growth hormone
    • Little benefits shown
    • Health concerns:
    • Abnormal grown of internal organs/bones
    • Increased blood glucose production from liver 00> Potential diabetes, metabolic syndrome risk
  61. Kombucha Tea
    • Tea bags
    • Pure water, rain or spring
    • White sugar
    • created by adding a bacterial/yeast colony to sweetened tea
    • 2 weeks for fermentation
    • End result is slightly acidic
    • Often home-brewed
  62. Kombucha Tea Side Effects
    • Upset stomach from acidity 
    • Infections
    • Allergic reactions
    • Contamination from home brewing
    • Metabolic acidosis --> Body becomes more acidic, mess with PH so you're out of homeostasis
  63. Black Cohosh - Clinical Use
    • Menstrual issues and PMS
    • Menopause
    • Sterility
    • Ammenorrhea - Not enough body fat
    • Endometroisis
    • Production of more breast milk
    • Rheumatic
    • Mild Depression
  64. Black Cohosh Drug Interations
    • Making these less effective:
    • Antibiotics
    • Anticancer drugs
    • Antidepressants
    • Cholesterol-reducing
    • Tylenol
  65. Echinacea - Clincia Use
    • Catching a cold and cold duration
    • Immunostimulator
    • Cancer treatments
    • Laxative
  66. Echinacea drug interactions
    • Making these less effective:
    • Allegra
    • Anti-anxiety medications
    • Anticonvulsants
    • Antifungals
    • Asthma medications
  67. Gingko Biloba
    • Chinese, large tree, living fossil
    • Smells like vomit
    • Memory/concentration enhancer
    • Dementia
    • Alzheimer's
    • Blood flow/microcirculation
    • Cerebrovascular insufficiency (WHO)
  68. Gingko Biloba Drug Interactions
    • Making these less effective:
    • Antidepressants
    • Anti-hypertension medications
    • Blood thinners
    • Warfarin/Coumadin
  69. Ginseng
    • Stimulant energy drinks
    • Fatigue in cancer patients
  70. Ginseng Drug Interactions
    • Making these less effective:
    • Blood thinners
    • Diabetes
    • Immunosuppressant
  71. Green Tea
    • Heart disease
    • Cancer - breast/prostate/ovarian
    • Metabolic Rate - induces thermogenesis
    • Fax oxidation
    • Phytochemicals - antioxidant/free radicals/oxidative stress
    • Lower LDL and total cholesterol
  72. Green Tea drug interactions
    • Making these less effective:
    • Anticonvulsants
    • Antihypertensive
    • Blood thinnders
    • Diabetes drugs
    • Tylenol
  73. Saw Palmetto
    • Rich in fatty acid and phytosterols
    • Linkage to prostate health/cancer (only 1 has been disproven but still famous)
    • Expectorant (loosens your mucus) and antiseptic
  74. Saw Palmetto Drug Interactions
    • Making these less effective:
    • Blood thinners
    • Oral contraceptives
    • Prostate Drugs
  75. St.John's Wort
    • Treating mild depression 
    • Major depression
    • Aggravating psychosis with schizophrenia
  76. St.John's Wort drug interactions
    • Allegra
    • some anticancer medications
    • Arrhythmia interactions (irregular heartbeats)
    • Antihypertension medications
    • Warfarin
    • Impotence drugs
    • Migraine medications
    • Oral contraceptives -decrease levels of estrogen by speeding up metabolism
  77. Anorexia Nervosa
    • Refusal to eat or denial of hunger
    • Intense fear of gaining weight
    • Preoccupation with food
    • Thin appearance
    • Eating disorder are about "out of control" not food
  78. Bulimia Nervosa
    • Binge/purge cycle
    • Lack of control while eating/eating to the point of discomfort or pain
    • Normal body weight or weight gain
    • Compensatory behaviors --shame, embarrasment
    • Eating thousands of calories in a hour
  79. Body Dysmorphia Disorder
    Seeing your body differently than others
  80. Clinical Signs of Anorexia
    • Lethargy/cold intolerance
    • Cardiovascular problems
    • Osteoporosis
    • Lanugo
    • Xerosis
    • Amenorrhea
  81. Lanugo
    • Buffy, long hair that cover our bodies when we were in the uterus to keep us warm
    • Goes away at birth since we use blankets to keep warm
    • Comes back during anorexia
  82. Osteoporosis
    • Don't have enough vitamin D, calcium, estrogen from foods
    • With lack of estrogen, makes a person's bones older than it is.
  83. Xerosis
    • Abnormally dry skin:
    • Don't have enough fat, which maintains skin
    • Not drinking enough water, since people think it would make them fatter
    • Lack of Vitamin E (seeds and oils)
  84. Clinical Signs of Bulima
    • Scars and calluses on hands/knuckles
    • Dental enamel erosion
    • Peripheral edema
    • Bradycardia (low heartbeat)
    • Swollen face/cheeks/salivary glands
  85. Russell's Sign
    • Scars, calluses, and sores on the back of hand (mostly in knuckles)
    • Stomach acids
  86. Peripheral Edema
    • Swelling of the legs, arms, ankle, and foot
    • Only shows up in one arm/leg than both
  87. How Cancer Develops
    • Mutations in the genes that control cell division
    • Develops because of carcinogen
    • Antioxidant
    • In all of us
  88. Normal Cells
    • Cellular repair of self-destruction
    • Anchorage dependence - only divide when it's touching other cells
    • Density-dependent inhibition- At certain density, it stops diving. At 1 layer
  89. Cancer Cells
    • Lose ability to self-destruction
    • Replicates uncontrollably 
    • Doesn't stop at one layer
    • Isn't density-dependent inhibition
    • Is not showing anchorage dependence
  90. Transformation
    Normal cell is converted to a cancerous cell by a process
  91. Benign Tumor
    If abnormal cells remain at the original site, the lump is called _____
  92. Malignant Tumors
    • Invade surrounding tissues and can metastasize, exporting cancer cells to other parts of the body where they may form secondary tumors
    • More dangerous
  93. HeLa Cells
    • "Immortal cell line" - cells are still dividing
    • 60,000 Scientific papers on it
  94. Lung Cancer
    • 2 types - small cell and non-small cell
    • 80-90%of cancer due to tobacco smoke
    • Coughing up blood, shortness of breath, weight loss
    • Chest radiograph, biopsy
    • Types of cancer/stage/health
  95. Skin Cancer/Melanoma
    • Form of cancer that begins in melanocytes (cells that make the pigment melanin)
    • Begins in a mole or other pigmented tissues
    • Melanoma - often spreads
    • Basal Cell Cancer - sun/face - rarely spreads
  96. Pancreatic Cancer
    • One of the most aggressive cancer
    • Usually found in advanced stages
    • African Americans are at highest risk, men, age
    • Smoking is the greatest risk factor, followed by diabetes
    • Focus on current research is at the genetic level
  97. Breast Cancer
    • Incidence doubles every 10 yrs until menopause, then drops off dramatically
    • Environmental factors (host countries)
    • East vs. West - West have 5x more 
    • Breastfeeding
    • 5-10% genetics (BRCA1 and BRCA2)
    • 90%-95% Environmental
  98. Immunotherapy
    Stimulate the immune system to reject and destroy tumors
  99. Vaccine Therapy
    • H.Pylori - stomach cancer
    • Hep C - Liver cancer
  100. Targeted Therapy
    Attack cancer cells without harming normal cells
  101. Megace
    Appretite stimulants
  102. Fiber rich foods prevent cancer
    Folate and antioxidant vitamins prevent cancer
    Food phytochemicals prevent cancer
    Red meats and processed meats - Cooking & Smoking
    Diet factors that affect Cancer Risk
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