Unit 3

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Unit 3
2014-04-08 09:20:26
Physical Science

General Physical Science
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  1. The main source of nearly all of the energy available to us on earth is provided to us by what?
    Fossil Fuels
  2. What is the definition of Energy? Units?
    The abstract concept of the ability to do work. The units are Joules.
  3. Which unit of heat is used in discussing nutrition and diets?
  4. The amount of heat needed to change 1 kilogram of a specific material from liquid to vapor (gas) at constant temperature is called what?
    Latent Heat of Vaporization
  5. Heat is most readily transferred through an opaque, solid material by the process of what?
  6. In what phase of matter are the molecules of a material locked in an orderly, three-dimensional arrangement?
  7. The change of 100 degrees on the Celsius scale is equal to a change of how many degrees on the Fahrenheit scale?
    180 degrees
  8. What are the terms used for different phase transitions?
    • 1. Sublimation
    • 2. Deposition
    • 3. Vaporization/Evaporation/Boiling
    • 4. Condensation
    • 5. Melting
    • 6. Freezing/Solidification
  9. The amount of heat required to raise 1 kg of any substance by 1 degree Celsius is called what?
    Specific Heat
  10. The amount of heat required to produce a phase change for 1 kg of any substance at the melting point is called what?
    Latent heat of fusion
  11. What are ways heat can be transferred?
    Conduction, Convection, Radiation
  12. Which method of heat transfer can take place through a vacuum?
    Radiation, because in a vacuum you have no contact with other materials.
  13. What occurs in alpha decay?
    This is the decay of a parent by the release of an alpha particle which consists of two protons and two neutrons. The alpha particle is released with great velocity, hence a significant energy release occurs. Because two protons were released from the parent, the daughter element will be different (lower by two).
  14. What occurs in beta decay?
    The decay of a parent when a neutron in the parent changes to a proton. Since the charge balance has to be maintained, a negatively charged electron is formed and released from the nucleus. The daughter isotope is different.
  15. What occurs in gamma decay?
    The decay of a parent when excess energy in the nucleus is released via high-energy electromagnetic (gamma) waves. No protons or neutrons are lost or added to the nucleus, so the parent and daughter are the same.
  16. What is half-life?
    Consistent time it will take for half of the remaining decays to occur.
  17. What is a fusion reaction?
    Nuclei of two elements are fused together into one nucleus.
  18. What is a fission reaction?
    When energy is released when an "atom" is split into two atoms.
  19. If only one-fourth of the original radioactive parent element remains, how long has the decay process been going on?
    each half life you take half of what was there, so two half life's.
  20. What is required for fusion?
    Great velocity and pressure
  21. What are the three principles to minimize personnel exposure to radiation?
    • 1. Time
    • 2. Distance
    • 3. Shielding
  22. What is ALARA an acronym for?
    As Low As Reasonably Achievable
  23. When the fossil records that we are studying contain only tracks, burrows, or borings of primitive animals, what are these indications called?
    Trace Fossils
  24. What is the name of the process/principle by which geologists can construct an organized picture of the geology of large areas or even entire continents?
  25. What radionuclide has a well-known percentage content in all living organisms until the time that they die, and so can be used to determine how long samples have been dead?
  26. What is the term used for the shortest increment in geologic time measurement?
  27. During which Era are dinosaurs thought to have lived on all of the continents?
  28. In what era are we presently living?
  29. The longest unit of geologic time is called what?
  30. What are the four types of galaxies according to the Hubble system?
    • 1. Spiral
    • 2. Spiral-Barred
    • 3. Eliptical
    • 4. Irregular
  31. The visible surface of the Sun is called what?
  32. What is our galaxy name?
    Milky Way
  33. What are the scales that relate star brightness?
    • Magnitude Scale:
    •  1. Apparent Magnitude
    •  2. Absolute Magnitude