# G. Chem 2

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1. Phase Change:
2. Solids:
• - maximum # of intermolecular forces
• - low energy
• - no compressibility (pressure)
• - fixed volume + shape
3. Liquids:
• - some intermolecular forces
• - higher energy
• - very low compressibility
• - fixed volume + shape
4. Gases:
• - few (almost none) intermol forces
• - highest E
• - compressible
• - vol fills container
5. Phase Change Graph:
• When you add heat...
• 1. Temp change
• 2. Phase change
• * ONLY one of there can occur @ a time!

q = m C Δ T

• q - heat
• m - mass
• C - specific heat capacity
• T - temp
• (heat takes to heat kg of subst by 1 deg Co/K every subst has own C)

q = n Hx

• q = heat
• n = moles (or mass)
• ---> Hf = heat of fusion; Hv = heat of vaporization
• have to look @ UNITS determines n
6. P vs. T --> phase changes
• - tells what state matter something going to exist @ temp
• - what happens through phase Δ if something stays constant
7. P vs. T - H2O
• *slope change
• liq form = most dense form (more dense than solid form)
8. Ideal Gas:
• 1. Gas has no mass
• 2. All collisions are elastic
• - (E completely conserved; no E lost)
• - (bounce & keep same amt of E)
• 3. All molecules have the same E = avg energy of system
9. Factors Affect Gases:
• - temp (↑Ek)
• - pressure (force of collision)
• - volume (decr free space b/w gas mol)

P α 1/v P α T T α V
10. PV = n R T
• R --> universal gas constant (always been the same)
• [*0.0821 L•atm/K•mol (more common) or 8.31 J/k•mol (unless ask for v)]

T --> K

*1 mol of ideal gas = 22.4 L @STP (T → 0oc/273K; P → 1 atm)
11. other form of PV = n R T
• P1 V1 = P2 V2
• T1 T2
12. Solubility:
ability to dissolve

• solvent: does the dissolving
• solute: gets dissolved
• solution: l + s; l +l; l + g; g +g; s +s
13. SOLUBILITY IN H2O:
1. All grp I & ammonium (NH4+) salts are SOLUBLE

2. NO3- (nitrate); ClO4- (perchlorate); C2H3O2- (acetate) are SOLUBLE

3. MLS: Hg, Pb, Ag are INSOLUBLE!!!
14. COLLIGATIVE PROPERTIES

Van't Hoff
i = how many parts a substance dissociates into...

• CaCl2 → i = 3
• NaNO3 → i = 2 (b/c NO3 covalent b.)
• C6H12O6 → i = 1

[anything covalent b. ONLY 1 part]
15. Boiling Pt Elevation:
(salt in pasta H2O)

∆T = K i m

• K → boil/freeze const
• i → van't hoff
• m → molality
 Author: Anonymous ID: 26967 Card Set: G. Chem 2 Updated: 2010-07-16 01:17:41 Tags: Chem CLO Folders: Description: G. Chem Class 2 Show Answers: