Vertebrate paleontology

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Vertebrate paleontology
2014-04-07 21:38:16

Show Answers:

  1. Why teeth?
    • Teeth are commonly found in the fossil record.
    • Information about
    • - diet
    • - habitat (conditions with)
  2. Basics
    • Layers
    • - enamel
    • - dentine
    • - cementum
    • - pulp cavity
  3. What is enamel?
    • Strongest material in body
    • originatez from ectoderm
    • made of enamel rods
    • - tightly packed inorganic material: hydroxyapatite crystals
  4. What is dentine?
    • Supports enamel
    • pale yellow
    • numeous parallel tubules
    • - allows for permeability
    • - higher chance for tooth decay and pain
  5. What is cementum?
    • Covers denting at the root
    • yellow
    • materials
    • - hydroxyapatite
  6. What is the pulp cavity?
    • Chamber
    • contains nerves and blood vessels
    • root canal
  7. Story
    • Ceratosaurus
    • allosaurs
    • Camarasaurus
    • apatosaurus
    • jimbo
    • stegosaurus

    lake river and flood plain environment

    • plants?
    • -ferns

    • temp?
    • -warmer than today

    late Jurassic, Wyoming 

    plot twist: river floods?

    • plot:
    • two allosaurs hunting a camarasaurus
    • - gets stuck in the mud at the edge of the lake and is too heavy to pull itself out
    • - lead allosaur goes for the throat killing the prey by crushing its wind pipe
    • - the group begins to eat the adult male stats to  eat first, the juveniles (the two children of this pair) appear once they hear the successful kill but have to wait their turn to eat
    • - zoom in on one of the young eating off a limb and loses a tooth stuck in the bone
    • - zoom out to see an out of place ceratosaurus watching the feast
    • - smaller than the allosaurs he stands no chance of getting any food until the larger animals abandon the carcus 
    • - watches until the last of the allosaurs has eaten it's fill and slowly inches towards the scraps
    • - searching through what is left he finds a few pieces to eat along the backbone and tail not much of a meal
    • -out of nowhere a screeching roar startles the ceratosaur when he sees the two large allosaurus charging towards him
    • - instinct first telling him to hold his ground he turns to the side showing off his large size (for his species but not for the allosaurs)
    • - blood rushes into his face similar to a blush, but this is in no way a sign of embarrassment he shows off the only threatening aspect of his person that might intimidate the allosaurs, his large nasal horn and two hornets above his eyes
    • - these are generally not used for fighting but can be rather intimidating when bright red
    • - the allosaurus pause unsettled By the display, this gives the ceratosaurus just enough time to back into the woods escaping into an area the allosaurs cannot maneuver through as easily as their smaller cousin
    • - watching the exhibition was a large herd of apatosaurus scouring the fern prairies for food
    • - as flowering plants have not yet evolved at this time there are no grasses and all of the trees are actually ferns
    • - moving to the lake and resulting river we can see a multitude of fish living in the waters with small theropods and pterosaurs hunting around The edge?
    • - a stegosaur appears startling the hunters and all leave to allow the heavily armored animal to get a drink
    • - an impressive animal with two rows of plates along his back and four large spikes on its tail
    • -as it is so close to the mating season, this back plates are much brighter than they usually are, for a smaller animal this would put them in danger by calling attention to themselves, however this large male has nothing to worry about, even the largest hunters in the area (the allosaurs) wouldn't approach this animal 
    • - returning to the lone ceratosaur, he is still in the allosaurs territory but trying to steer clear of the pair
    • -still hungry after a scant meal of left overs, he is hunting at the edge of the woods, keeping out of sight within the ferns
    • - near by he hears a bush rustling, the animal sounds small enough to be easily caught but a decent meal
    • - approaching silently he stalks the prey in the bush moving slowly closer
    • - taking a moment to situate himself he crouches and prepares to pounce
    • - before he can take another step the bush erupts when it is ripped up from the ground by a sauropod
    • - the head is small in comparison to the rest of the body
    • - the ceratosaur has stumbled upon a feeding supersaurus, the largest animal found in North America at this time, he is 109ft long from nose to tail
    • - the ceratosaur quickly backs away, knowing he has no hope of surviving an encounter with a monster this large
    • - the majestic beast may very well be over 100 years old and does not feel threatened by any theropod
    • - near by the stegosaurs have begun displaying
    • - the large male we saw earlier is the dominant male and has been for the past few years
    • - this year there is a new younger male vying for the dominant position
    • - he approaches the larger male, these animals are obviously poorly matched, but they are not Too bright with one of the smallest brain to body ratios of all the dinosaurs
    • - turning their bodies sideways to keep their opponent in view while also moving their large spikes towards the others heads 
    • - as neither are sufficiently intimidated by the oh hers display a fight is sure to commence
    • - the smaller male swings first and misses, reacting on instinct alone the larger male swings and connects with the usurpers shoulder scratching a deep wound across his arm and side
    • - a scream radiates from the injured males throat and he finally gets the hint to back down, moving away slowly
    • - our ceratosaur observes this interaction 
    • - while all the female stegosaurs are paying full attention to the once again successful male, the theropod follows the injured male away from the group
    • - this could be his chance to get a decent meal
    • - a predator can always sense when another animal is near death 
    • - keeping out of sight, he trails the limping animal to a small watering hole
    • - as the wet season has just begun there are many of these small watering holes dispersed across the plains
    • - while injured the stegosaur is probably even more dangerous to an approaching theropod and will swing at anything that startles it, but the ceratosaur is willing to wait
    • - his patience pays off and within hours the stegosaur has lost so much blood that it cannot fight off our ceratosaur feeding on its prone body
    • - he had to eat quickly, smaller predators had began to appear while the stegosaur bled out
    • - those he could deal with but it was only a matter of time before larger predators such as the allosaurs would be attracted by the smell of blood and flesh
    • - by the time he has eaten his fill, there is still most of the stegosaur left and the smaller scavengers have begun to feed as well
    • - bending down for one last bite, he sees the allosaur pair approaching, once again hungry
    • - backing away the ceratosaur has no need to stand his ground this time
    • - the little scavengers scatter knowing the allosaurs would just as easily catch and eat one of them if they got in the way
  8. Central characteristics
    • Lower vertebrates
    • - tooth replacement
    •   - polyhyodont
    • - dental patterns
    •   - homodont
    • - tooth attachment
  9. Origins
    • First tooth like anatomy appeared in Ordovician (460mya)
    • some jawless fish developed superficial, dermal structures know. As Odontodes
  10. Odontodes
    Functions: protection, sensation and hy
  11. Honorable mentions
    • Agnathans
    • - lampreys have "teeth"
    •   - horny teeth