CSP exam 1

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esnichols
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26968
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CSP exam 1
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2010-07-15 21:19:01
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current social problems
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exam 1
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  1. What
    is the definition of social problem
    • a.
    • Social condition or pattern of behavior that
    • people believe warrants public concern and collective action to bring about
    • change.
  2. 1.
    What are the two elements in the definition of a Social Problem?
    • a.
    • Objective reality – existence of social
    • condition

    • b.
    • Subjective perception – belief the condition is
    • harmful to society.
  3. 1.
    What are norms?
    • a.
    • Behavior guidelines, socially defined rules of
    • behavior
  4. 1.
    Define and differentiate the two subtypes of
    norms.
    • a.
    • Folkways – manors and customs, minor norms

    • b.
    • Mores - Strongly held norms that have moral
    • connotations
  5. 1.
    What is social structure?
    • a.
    • The way society is organized
  6. Status
    • position
    • within a social group
  7. Role
    • set
    • of rights, obligations, and expectations associated with a status
  8. ascribed
    status
    • what
    • you are born into
  9. achieved
    status
    • what
    • you have acquired by choice
  10. Define
    social institutions
    • An
    • established and enduring pattern of social relationships
  11. Name
    the five major social institutions in our society
    • a.
    • Family

    • b.
    • Religion

    • c.
    • Politics

    • d.
    • Economics

    • e.
    • Education
  12. 1.
    What is social marginality?
    • State
    • of being placed outside the main stream in social settings
  13. How
    does social marginality help us better understand social problems
    • Allows
    • us to look in from the outside to see how society is set up
  14. Compare
    and contrast the macro level and micro level of sociological
    analyses
    • a.
    • Macro – focuses on social processes within or
    • between social institutions

    • b.
    • Micro – focuses on social behavior &
    • interactions among individuals
  15. 1.
    Briefly describe how the
    structural-functional perspective explains social problems.
    • a.
    • Society is a system of interconnected parts that
    • work together to maintain the stability of the whole.
  16. manifest
    function
    • intended
    • positive outcome
  17. latent
    function
    • unintended
    • positive outcome
  18. dysfunction.
    • negative
    • side effect
  19. Name
    the two explanations of social problems provided by the structural-
    functionalists
    • a.
    • Social pathology – malfunctions of institutions

    • b.
    • Social disorganization – rapid social change
  20. 1.
    How can social problems be solved according to
    the structural-functionalists?
    • a.
    • Repair weak institutions

    • b.
    • Restore shared values and norms
  21. 1.
    Briefly describe how the conflict perspective
    explains social problems.
    • a.
    • Society is comprised of different groups and
    • interests that compete for power and scarce resources.
  22. Economic
    determinism
    • structure
    • of economy shapes all other aspects of society.
    • Those who own the power of production over lap those who own money,
    • power, and prestige.
  23. Class
    Conflict
    • Ruling
    • class posess the means of production.
    • Workers must sell labor to make a living.
  24. Alienation
    • a
    • feeling of powerlessness & meaninglessness.
  25. How
    is the view of Dahrendorf different from Marxism?
    • a.
    • Because of different groups with opposing values
    • and interests.
  26. How
    can social problems be solved according to the conflict theorists?
    • Reduce
    • inequalities & competition at the macro level in society
  27. What
    is Thomas’ theorem?
    • If
    • situations are defined as real, they are real in their consequences
  28. Briefly
    describe the Symbolic Interactionists’ explanation on social problems by using
    the concepts such as labeling and self-fulfilling prophecy.
    • a.
    • Labels are created and reacted to by society as
    • such.

    • b.
    • Self-fulfilling prophecy – the prophecy by which
    • belief / prediction results in behavior that makes the original conception come
    • true.
  29. 1.
    How can social problems be solved according to
    the symbolic interactionists?
    • a.
    • Through negotiations and change of definitions.
  30. absolute
    poverty
    • lacking
    • the means to secure the most basic necessities of life.
  31. relative
    poverty
    • having
    • deficiencies in resources compared with other members of society.
  32. 1.
    How is income different from
    wealth?
    • Income
    • is earnings where wealth is total assets minus debts
  33. 1.
    Briefly describe how the Davis-Moore Thesis
    explains social stratification.
    • a.
    • Meritocracy – stratification based on personal
    • merit.

    • b.
    • Functions as a reward system for vital social
    • roles


    • i.
    • Filled by the ablest


    • ii.
    • Promotion of equal opportunities
  34. 1.
    Name the age group that has the highest rate of
    poverty in the U.S.
    • a.
    • Children – K-18
  35. What proportion does this age group represent in the U.S.
    poverty population?
    • .
    • 1/3 of the population
  36. Describe
    what “feminization of poverty” means, then briefly explain the mechanism
    through which this phenomenon occurs in society.
    a. 2/3 of adult poor population is female

    • b. They
    • are young, less educated, and bearing children.
  37. What
    is poverty rate?
    • percentage
    • of population below the government’s poverty line, currently 12% (12.5%)
  38. Describe how the U.S. poverty line is currently
    calculated.
    • established
    • by SS admin in 1965, assumes average family spends 1/3 total income on food.
  39. What
    is the current federal minimum wage?
    $7.25
  40. Define
    working poor.
    • .
    • Those who spend more than 27 weeks a year in the labor force and whose income
    • falls below poverty line.
  41. Why
    does intergenerational poverty occur?
    • more
    • likely to be in poverty if you were raised in poverty
  42. Compare
    and contrast 1) cultural explanation and 2) structural explanation
    of a cycle of poverty.
    • a. cultural – transmission of cultural traits which produce
    • poverty

    • b.
    • deteriorating neighborhoods abandoned by legitimate businesses
  43. means
    tested
    • eligibility
    • based on income
  44. age
    tested
    benefits at a certain age by having paid into the program.
  45. Identify
    the year of welfare reform.
    1996
  46. Name
    the program that replaced the previous program for families in poverty (i.e.,
    Aid to Families with Dependent Children) and identify the two major reforms of
    the new program as discussed in the lecture.
    a. Temporary assistance to needy families.

    • i.
    • requirements for evidence of efforts to leave welfare

    • ii.
    • Time limit
  47. Identify
    the major problem that the U.S. public housing assistance has been
    facing?
    • social
    • disorder and crime.
  48. What
    is the major obstacle to employment among U.S. single parents?
    • a.
    • cost of child care.
  49. race
    • Race
    • is based on physical characteristics
  50. ethnicity.
    • ethnicity
    • is based on cultural characteristics.
  51. Classification
    of people has significant consequences on our perception. Name two
    consequences that lead us to make inaccurate judgment on people
    • a.
    • overgeneralization – all members

    • b. illusion
    • of out-group homogeneity
  52. stereotypes
    • set
    • of characteristics attributed to all members of a social category
  53. prejudice
    • attitude
    • toward or strong disliking for members of a certain group
  54. ethnocentrism
    • judging
    • other groups with reference to one’s own group
  55. Define minority group.
    • a.
    • category of people who have unequal access to resources in society and who tend
    • to be the target of prejudice and discrimination.
  56. What
    does U.S. Census classification tell us about the state of U.S. diversity?
    • .
    • It reflects public awareness of diversity.
  57. assimilation
    • members
    • of a subordinate group become absorbed into the dominant culture
  58. Amalgamation
    • cultural attributes of diverse groups are blended together
    • to form a new society incorporating the unique contributions of each other.
  59. pluralism
    • a
    • state in which groups maintain their distinctness but respect each other and
    • have equal access to social resources.
  60. Primary
    assimilation
    • in
    • personal / intimate relationships
  61. Secondary
    assimilation
    in public areas and social institutions.
  62. 60.
    Define racism.
    • a.
    • Linking the biological conditions with alleged
    • socio-cultural capabilities and behavior to assert the superiority of one race.
  63. aversive
    racism
    • subtle
    • and unintentional
  64. modern
    racism
    • because
    • laws and policies prohibit discrimination any social disadvantages of
    • minorities must be their own fault.
  65. individual
    discrimination
    • based
    • on individual prejudices
  66. institutional
    discrimination
    • a.
    • normal operations and procedures of social
    • institutions result in unequal treatment of minorities
  67. overt
    discrimination
    • based
    • on a persons own prejudices
  68. adaptive
    discrimination.
    • based
    • on prejudices of others (restaurant owner example)
  69. 60.
    What are the three factors discussed in class
    that contribute to the lower levels of education achieved by racial/ethnic
    minorities compared to non-Hispanic whites?
    • a.
    • Employment – lower incomes on average

    • b.
    • Education – residential segregation – inadequate
    • funding in economy for disadvantaged areas

    • c.
    • Segregation in school system increasing since
    • 1990s
  70. 66.
    Define segregation.
    • a.
    • Spatial and social separation of categories of
    • people by social characteristics
  71. de
    jure segregation
    • by law
    • or authority
  72. de
    facto segregation
    • a.
    • by custom or practice
  73. 66.
    What are the two factors that contribute to
    persistent housing segregation in the U.S.?
    • a.
    • Redlining

    • b.
    • Geographic steering
  74. Redlining
    • loans
    • denied for the purchase of housing in minority neighborhoods
  75. Geographic
    steering
    • realtors
    • showing homes only in minority neighborhoods
  76. 66.
    What is affirmative action?
    • a.
    • Policies and practices in the work place and
    • educational institutions to promote equal opportunity as well as diversity
  77. 66.
    Briefly describe the history of U.S. affirmative
    action between 1974 and 2003.
    • Moving
    • away from traditional AA and claiming reverse discrimination
  78. 66.
    Briefly describe the current U.S. public
    attitudes toward affirmative action.
    • a.
    • Little more than 50% support AA
  79. 66.
    Which minority group constitutes the largest
    beneficiary of affirmative action policies?
    • a.
    • White women

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