World History CH 31 Q's

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World History CH 31 Q's
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World History CH 31 Q's
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  1. *24. The only Eastern Bloc country that responded to the prodemocracy movement of 1989 with bloody repression was

    A. Hungary.
    B. East Germany.
    C. Romania.
    D. Czechoslovakia.
    E. Poland.
    C. Romania.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. *25. In late 1994, which autonomous republic in the Russian Federation declared independence, prompting an invasion by the Russian Army and a bloody civil war?

    A. Tatarstan.
    B. Daghestan.
    C. Karelia.
    D. Chechnya.
    E. Tuvia.
    D. Chechnya.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. *26. The Brezhnev era in the Soviet Union appeared stable for all of the following reasons except

    A. the coercive apparatus of the state and Party.
    B. a gradually rising standard of living.
    C. the high rate of growth in the consumer sector of the economy.
    D. access to special stores, travel abroad, and other privileges for elites.
    E. the nationalism of ordinary Great Russians.
    C. the high rate of growth in the consumer sector of the economy.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. *27. The Brezhnev era witnessed all of the following changes except

    A. cultural and artistic freedom.
    B. the growth of the urban population.
    C. participation of leading Soviet scientists and professionals in international communities of their disciplines.
    D. the growth of Soviet public opinion.
    E. rapid expansion in the number of highly trained specialists.
    A. cultural and artistic freedom.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. *28. Poland differed from the other Eastern Bloc states because

    A. of its refusal to borrow from the West.
    B. of its independent agriculture and vigorous church.
    C. of its native leadership.
    D. its economy was managed effectively.
    E. it retained an independent military.
    B. of its independent agriculture and vigorous church.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. *29. The workers at the Lenin Shipyards in Gdansk demanded all of the following except

    A. dissolution of the Communist party.
    B. the right to strike.
    C. economic reforms.
    D. freedom of speech.
    E. the release of political prisoners.
    A. dissolution of the Communist party.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. *30. Gorbachev's economic reforms included all of the following except

    A. more independence for state enterprises.
    B. freer prices.
    C. the legalization of private cooperatives.
    D. the establishment of profit-seeking corporations.
    E. the breakup of collective farms.
    E. the breakup of collective farms.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. *31. The earliest part of Gorbachev's reform campaign in the U.S.S.R. featured

    A. concessions to demands for autonomy from non-Russian ethnic groups.
    B. antialcoholism and anticorruption drives.
    C. a call for a multiparty political system.
    D. a campaign to remove Jews from official positions.
    E. an attempt to modernize the Soviet nuclear weapons arsenal.
    B. antialcoholism and anticorruption drives.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. *32. In the revolutions of 1989, the first state to elect a non-Communist leader was

    A. Romania.
    B. Hungary.
    C. Poland.
    D. East Germany.
    E. Czechoslovakia.
    C. Poland.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. *33. According to the text, European societies in the early 21st century face all of the following problems except

    A. declining birthrates.
    B. rapidly declining living standards.
    C. aging of the population.
    D. illegal immigration.
    E. a large influx of refugees from civil wars outside Europe.
    B. rapidly declining living standards.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  11. *34. Privatized companies in post-Soviet Russia

    A. have attracted a great deal of investment from average Russians.
    B. have been bought up by foreign investors.
    C. are not allowed.
    D. usually ended up in the hands of former Soviet managers and bureaucrats.
    E. are largely cooperatives.
    D. usually ended up in the hands of former Soviet managers and bureaucrats.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  12. *35. According to the text, economic "shock therapy" in Russia worked poorly for all of the following reasons except the

    A. tendency of Russians to see business as inseparable from crime.
    B. transformation of state-owned monopolies into private monopolies.
    C. large proportion of production devoted to military goods.
    D. distribution of subsidies by the Yeltsin government.
    E. strength of the ruble on international currency exchanges.
    E. strength of the ruble on international currency exchanges.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. *36. Vladimir Putin

    A. was elected President of Russia in 2000.
    B. was Yeltsin's chief economic adviser.
    C. was head of the KGB under Gorbachev.
    D. headed the coal miner's union in the Russian Far East.
    E. was leader of the Chechen independence movement.
    A. was elected President of Russia in 2000.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  14. 37. Russian moderation in foreign affairs is evident in all of the following except its

    A. negotiation of a treaty providing for cooperation with NATO.
    B. continued decline in military spending.
    C. respect for the independence of the successor states of the Soviet Union.
    D. acceptance of the expansion of NATO.
    E. application to join NATO.
    E. application to join NATO.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. 38. Between 1991 and 1999 the Yugoslav Army and Serb irregular forces invaded or attacked non-Serb ethnic groups in all of the following areas except

    A. Montenegro.
    B. Kosovo.
    C. Croatia.
    D. Bosnia-Herzegovina.
    E. Slovenia.
    A. Montenegro.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  16. *39. The Solidarity movement of the 1980s was led by

    A. Wojciech Jaruzelski.
    B. Lech Walesa.
    C.Karol Wojtyla.
    D. Mikhail Gorbachev.
    E. Alexander Dubcek.
    B. Lech Walesa.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  17. 40. In order to deal with the disastrous economic situation, the Solidarity government in Poland

    A. followed a program of modest reform in small-scale industry.
    B. continued the Soviet-style, command economy.
    C. implemented economic "shock therapy" for free markets and private property.
    D. applied for membership in the European Economic Community.
    E. collectivized agriculture.
    C. implemented economic "shock therapy" for free markets and private property.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  18. *41. The Maastricht Treaty of 1991

    A. recognized Slovenian independence.
    B. reunited Germany.
    C. recognized Croatian independence.
    D. set up a plan for creating a European monetary union with a single currency.
    E. ended the Cold War.
    D. set up a plan for creating a European monetary union with a single currency.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. *42. The attempted coup by the communist old guard in the Soviet Union in August 1991 failed because of

    A. Gorbachev's use of the Red Army to crush the rebels.
    B. the inability of the old guard to decide on a new leader.
    C. massive popular resistance, rallied around Boris Yeltsin.
    D. the United States' threat to intervene.
    E. the threat of NATO intervention.
    C. massive popular resistance, rallied around Boris Yeltsin.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. *43. According to the text, many European intellectuals see Europe's mission in the 21st century as

    A. strengthening nationalism in European societies.
    B. developing a joint space program.
    C. reviving the welfare state.
    D. promoting human rights, democracy, and prosperity outside Europe.
    E. incorporating Russia into NATO.
    D. promoting human rights, democracy, and prosperity outside Europe.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  21. 44. Among the predictions made in the 1970s about the future of humanity that have to date not come true are all the following except

    A. that high energy prices would drive standards of living down.
    B. that twenty to thirty countries would have nuclear weapons by 2000.
    C. that pollution would destroy the environment.
    D. that the traditional family would disappear.
    E. that U.S. emissions of carbon dioxide would continue to rise.
    E. that U.S. emissions of carbon dioxide would continue to rise.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  22. *45. The Gulf War clearly revealed

    A. U.S. unwillingness to deploy troops in large numbers in the Middle East.
    B. the lingering resentment of the Arab world against the United States.
    C. the disunity among the world community.
    D. American preeminence as the only remaining superpower.
    E. Russia's continued importance in world affairs.
    D. American preeminence as the only remaining superpower.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  23. 46. The post-Soviet governments of Eastern Europe introduced all of the following reforms except

    A. substantial social welfare systems.
    B. establishment of strong currencies and balanced budgets.
    C. privatization of state-owned enterprises.
    D. establishment of independent broadcasting networks.
    E. free markets and prices.
    A. substantial social welfare systems.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  24. 47. In the year 2001

    A. Communist parties won election to national leadership in three member states of the European Union.
    B. Right-wing nationalist parties won national elections in Germany, the Netherlands, and Norway.
    C. Christian Democratic and other conservative parties made a clean sweep of national elections in members' states of the European Union.
    D. all member states of the European Union pulled out of the proposed monetary union.
    E. socialist parties came to power in thirteen of fifteen member states of the European Union.
    E. socialist parties came to power in thirteen of fifteen member states of the European Union.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  25. *48. In 1997, which three countries were accepted to membership in NATO?

    A. Poland, the Czech Republic, and Hungary.
    B. Croatia, Slovenia, and Bosnia-Herzegovina.
    C. Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia.
    D. Austria, Sweden, and Switzerland.
    E. Greece, Turkey, and Bulgaria.
    A. Poland, the Czech Republic, and Hungary.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  26. *49. The successful reform movements in Poland, Hungary, and the Czech Republic resulted from all of the following factors except

    A. state control of strategic industries.
    B. the desire to fulfill the requirements for entering NATO.
    C. considerable experience with limited market reforms before 1989.
    D. flexibility in government policy.
    E. the enthusiastic embrace of capitalism by a new, rising entrepreneurial class.
    A. state control of strategic industries.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  27. 50. The Eastern European states that lagged behind in reform efforts included all of the following except

    A. Yugoslavia.
    B. Lithuania.
    C. Slovakia.
    D. Romania.
    E. Bulgaria.
    B. Lithuania.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  28. *51. Slobadan Milosevic's plan which hastened separatism and civil war in Yugoslavia was known

    A. the League of Communists.
    B. Titoism.
    C. the Commonwealth of Independent States.
    D. Greater Serbia.
    E. the Third Way.
    D. Greater Serbia.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  29. *52. The event which finally galvanized NATO action against the Bosnian Serbs was

    A. the discovery of ethnic cleansing policies.
    B. the fear of Russian intervention on the Bosnian Serb side.
    C. Milosevic's ditching of his Bosnian Serb allies.
    D. the invasion of Bosnia by elements of the regular Serbian army.
    E. the slaughter of several thousands citizens in Srebrenica.
    E. the slaughter of several thousands citizens in Srebrenica.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  30. 53. The Dayton Accords created

    A. a loosely federated state, with Serbs, Croats, and Muslims sharing control.
    B. a strong, centralized state dominated by the Muslims.
    C. a multinational union of all Serbs in the former Yugoslavia.
    D. an ethnically Serbian state in Bosnia.
    E. a Bosnian state "cleansed" of Serbs.
    A. a loosely federated state, with Serbs, Croats, and Muslims sharing control.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  31. *54. The text argues that the decline of West European birthrates is due to

    A. increasing rates of homosexuality.
    B. the decline of religious belief.
    C. the entrance of married women into careers and the related drive for gender equality.
    D. environmental degradation.
    E. state policies discouraging childbearing.
    C. the entrance of married women into careers and the related drive for gender equality.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  32. *55. It is estimated that between 1991 and 1999, illegal immigration into the European Union remained

    A. rose from 50,000 to perhaps 200,000 per year.
    B. was nearly eliminated by tighter border security measures.
    C. rose from 50,000 to about 500,000 persons per year.
    D. dropped precipitously from 50,000 to 10,000 persons per year.
    E. constant at about 50,000 persons annually.
    C. rose from 50,000 to about 500,000 persons per year.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  33. 56. Maastricht Treaty faced considerable opposition from all of the following groups except

    A. ordinary people.
    B. Christian Democrats.
    C. Labor unions.
    D. old-fashioned nationalists.
    E. leftist political parties.
    B. Christian Democrats.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  34. *57. Opposition to the Maastricht Treaty was based on all of the following considerations except

    A. the belief that the new currency would be easily manipulated and controlled by the United States.
    B. fear of undermining national sovereignty.
    C. fear of undermining popular control of government through national elections.
    D. the belief that ordinary people would pay for monetary union by reduced social services.
    E. resentment against the proliferation of EU regulations and large bureaucracy.
    A. the belief that the new currency would be easily manipulated and controlled by the United States.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  35. *58. French reaction to the austerity reforms introduced to meet Maastricht criteria featured

    A. grumbling resentment.
    B. massive protest marches and a national strike.
    C. waves of political violence.
    D. lukewarm acceptance.
    E. large-scale emigration.
    B. massive protest marches and a national strike.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  36. 59. In the aftermath of German reunification, the consequences have included all of the following except

    A. diminution of the status of women.
    B. a greater role for women in the public sphere.
    C. psychological distress by East Germans who feel humiliated.
    D. high unemployment.
    E. a reduction of the number of women in the workforce.
    B. a greater role for women in the public sphere.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  37. 60. Vaclav Havel's message, from the "Individuals in Society" feature, emphasizes

    A. nationalistic self-determination.
    B. the power of peaceful revolution.
    C. the Christian core of Western civilization.
    D. the continued importance of socialist welfare systems in Eastern Europe.
    E. the need to reunite Czechia and Slovakia.
    B. the power of peaceful revolution.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  38. 61. Adam Michnik, whose Letters from Prison is presented in "Listening to the Past," argued that

    A. Solidarity should be dissolved and replaced with a more politically oriented organization.
    B. Solidarity rejected violence for practical and idealistic reasons.
    C. Lech Walesa sold out the workers for his own political power.
    D. Solidarity should pursue a policy of violent confrontation with the Communist Party.
    E. Solidarity should seek to broaden its contacts with foreign labor unions.
    B. Solidarity rejected violence for practical and idealistic reasons.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  39. Terrorism and ____________ have gone hand-in-hand since the beginning of the twentieth century.
    A) civil war
    B) fundamentalism
    C) famine
    D) epidemic
    E) religion
  40. A) civil war
  41. The German Red Army Faction is an example of the
    A) intersection of religion and terrorism.
    B) subversion of the West by the Soviet Union.
    C) second wave of terrorism.
    D) first wave of terrorism.
    E) third wave of terrorism.
    C) second wave of terrorism.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  42. Western nations joined forces with the Afghani _____________ in the 2001 attack on the Taliban and al-Qaeda.
    A) Pashtun Alliance
    B) underground
    C) Freedom Fighters
    D) Mujahideen
    E) Northern Alliance
    E) Northern Alliance
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  43. During their struggle against the Soviet Union, bin Laden and like-minded "holy warriors" developed a hatred of all of the following except
    A) the government of Egypt.
    B) most existing Arab governments.
    C) the dictatorship of Saddam Hussein.
    D) the Saudi monarchy.
    E) Islamic puritanism.
    E) Islamic puritanism.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  44. In __________, President Bush and his advisers began to consider how to overthrow Saddam Hussein.
    A) 2000
    B) 2003
    C) 2002
    D) 1992
    E) 2001
    A) 2000
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  45. In 2002, the Bush administration ____________ new Security Council resolutions requiring Iraq to accept the return of weapons inspectors.
    A) eagerly agreed to
    B) pushed hard for
    C) refused to be part of
    D) reluctantly agreed to
    E) rejected
    D) reluctantly agreed to
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  46. In the days after the collapse of Saddam's dictatorship, British and American troops __________ looting of government buildings and hospitals.
    A) actively prevented
    B) could do nothing to stop
    C) turned a blind eye to
    D) used violence to stop the
    E) encouraged
    C) turned a blind eye to
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  47. Which of the following events occurred first?
    A) Maastricht treaty sets criteria for European monetary union.
    B) Solidarity gains power in Poland.
    C) Glasnost leads to greater freedom of speech in the Soviet Union.
    D) First War with Iraq begins.
    E) European Union is created.
    C) Glasnost leads to greater freedom of speech in the Soviet Union.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  48. Gorbachev's encouragement of reform movements in Poland and Hungary was a repudiation of the ____________ doctrine.
    A) Brezhnev
    B) Detente
    C) Glasnost
    D) Stalin
    E) Truman
    A) Brezhnev
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  49. _____________'s Velvet Revolution ousted the communist government from power.
    A) Lithuania
    B) Czechoslovakia
    C) Romania
    D) Poland
    E) Hungary
    B) Czechoslovakia
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  50. When ___________ broke away from the Soviet Union, Alma-Ata became its capital.
    A) Georgia
    B) Kazakhstan
    C) Tajikistan
    D) Azerbaijan
    E) Uzbekistan
    B) Kazakhstan
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  51. The ___________ of 1990 was a general peace treaty that brought an end to World War II and the cold war.
    A) Paris Accord
    B) Dayton Accord
    C) Washington Accord
    D) Helsinki Accord
    E) Berlin Accord
    A) Paris Accord
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  52. Alliance for Germany
    a political party that was set up in East Germany calling for the unification of East and West Germany, which they felt would lead to an economic bonanza in East Germany. In March 1990 they won almost 50 % of the votes in East German parliamentary election thereby beating out the Socialist party.
  53. baby bust
    at the opening to the 21st century, Europe was experiencing falling birthrates that seemed to promise a shrinking and aging population in the future.
  54. European Union
    the new name as of 1993 for the European Community.
  55. Gdansk Agreement
    a working class revolt in the Lenin shipyards of Gdansk that resulted in the workers gaining their revolutionary demands including the right to form free trade unions, freedom of speech, release of political prisoners, and economic reforms.
  56. Glasnost
    "openness," part of Gorbachev's campaign to "tell it like it is" marked a break from the past were long banned writers sold millions of copies of their works, and denunciations of Stalin and his terror were standard public discourse.
  57. Great Russians
    party leaders that identified themselves with Russian patriotism, stressing their role in saving the country during WWII by protecting it from foreigners; they were leaders within the Communist party in non-Russian republics.
  58. Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA)
    formed in 1998 by frustrated Kosovar militants who sought to fight for their independence.
  59. Maastricht treaty
    a treaty created in 1991 that set strict financial criteria for joining the proposed monetary union, with it single currency and set 1999 as the start date for its establishment.
  60. Paris Accord
    a general peace treaty that brought an end to World War II and the cold war that followed - it called for a scaling down of all armed forces and the acceptance of all existing borders as legal and valid.
  61. perestroika
    economic "restructuring" reform implemented by Gorbachev that permitted an easing of government price controls on some goods, more independence for state enterprises, and the setting up of profit-seeking private cooperatives to provide personal services for consumers.
  62. re-Stanlinization
    referring to the installation of a dictatorship in Russia that was collective rather than personal and where coercion replaced terror and that lasted until Gorbachev in 1985.
  63. shock therapy
    the Solidarity-led governments radical take on economic affairs that were designed to make a clean break with state planning and move to market mechanisms and private property.
  64. Solidarity
    led by Lech Walesa, this group of workers organized their free and democratic trade union and quickly became the union of a nation with a full-time staff of 40,000 and 9.5 million union members by March 1981.
  65. third way
    a plan for East German government supported by East German reform communists who wanted to preserve socialism by making it democratic and responsive to the needs of the people. They advocated going beyond failed Stalinism and capitalism, and called for closer ties, yet not unification, with West Germany.
  66. Velvet Revolution
    the moment when communism died in 1989 with an ousting of Communist bosses in only ten days; it grew out of popular demonstrations led by students, intellectuals and a dissident playwright.
  67. New World Order
    A description of the international system resulting from the collapse of the Soviet Union in which the balance of nuclear terror theoretically no longer determined the destinies of states.
  68. a political party that was set up in East Germany calling for the unification of East and West Germany, which they felt would lead to an economic bonanza in East Germany. In March 1990 they won almost 50 % of the votes in East German parliamentary election thereby beating out the Socialist party.
    Alliance for Germany
  69. at the opening to the 21st century, Europe was experiencing falling birthrates that seemed to promise a shrinking and aging population in the future.
    baby bust
  70. the new name as of 1993 for the European Community.
    European Union
  71. a working class revolt in the Lenin shipyards of Gdansk that resulted in the workers gaining their revolutionary demands including the right to form free trade unions, freedom of speech, release of political prisoners, and economic reforms.
    Gdansk Agreement
  72. "openness," part of Gorbachev's campaign to "tell it like it is" marked a break from the past were long banned writers sold millions of copies of their works, and denunciations of Stalin and his terror were standard public discourse.
    Glasnost
  73. party leaders that identified themselves with Russian patriotism, stressing their role in saving the country during WWII by protecting it from foreigners; they were leaders within the Communist party in non-Russian republics.
    Great Russians
  74. formed in 1998 by frustrated Kosovar militants who sought to fight for their independence.
    Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA)
  75. a treaty created in 1991 that set strict financial criteria for joining the proposed monetary union, with it single currency and set 1999 as the start date for its establishment.
    Maastricht treaty
  76. a general peace treaty that brought an end to World War II and the cold war that followed - it called for a scaling down of all armed forces and the acceptance of all existing borders as legal and valid.
    Paris Accord
  77. economic "restructuring" reform implemented by Gorbachev that permitted an easing of government price controls on some goods, more independence for state enterprises, and the setting up of profit-seeking private cooperatives to provide personal services for consumers.
    perestroika
  78. referring to the installation of a dictatorship in Russia that was collective rather than personal and where coercion replaced terror and that lasted until Gorbachev in 1985.
    re-Stanlinization
  79. the Solidarity-led governments radical take on economic affairs that were designed to make a clean break with state planning and move to market mechanisms and private property.
    shock therapy
  80. led by Lech Walesa, this group of workers organized their free and democratic trade union and quickly became the union of a nation with a full-time staff of 40,000 and 9.5 million union members by March 1981.
    Solidarity
  81. a plan for East German government supported by East German reform communists who wanted to preserve socialism by making it democratic and responsive to the needs of the people. They advocated going beyond failed Stalinism and capitalism, and called for closer ties, yet not unification, with West Germany.
    third way
  82. the moment when communism died in 1989 with an ousting of Communist bosses in only ten days; it grew out of popular demonstrations led by students, intellectuals and a dissident playwright.
    Velvet Revolution
  83. A description of the international system resulting from the collapse of the Soviet Union in which the balance of nuclear terror theoretically no longer determined the destinies of states.
    New World Order

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