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  1. Health Promotion
    general philosophy that holds the idea that good health or wellness is a personal or collective achievement
  2. What are the top 3 preventable factors that cause nearly half the deaths in the U.S.?
    • smoking
    • drinking
    • food
  3. Health Behavior
    behavior undertaken by people to enhance or maintain their health
  4. Health Habits
    health behaviors that are firmly established and often performed automatically without awareness
  5. Health Habits and Mortality (Beloc & Breslow, 1980)
    • more health behaviors lead to fewere illnesses, more energy and less disability
    • women 43% less likely to die
  6. Primary Prevention
    instilling good health habits and changing poor ones
  7. What are the factors that influence health behavior?
    • demographics
    • values and culture
    • health locus of control
    • social influence
    • self-affirmation
  8. Influential Health Behavior Factors - Demographics
    income (SES), education, and age (habits good in childhood and improve again in older people)
  9. Influential Health Behavior Factors - Health Locus of Control
    perceptions about whether or not ones health is under personal control - the self, powerful others, or change
  10. Influential Health Behavior Factors - Social Influence
    family, friends, and work place comparisons can influence health behavior
  11. Social Influence - Protective factors
    • decrease likelihood of engaging in risk behavior
    • positive models for healthy behavior
    • social sanction for non-normative behavior
    • social support
  12. Social Influence - Risk Factors
    • models for unbehavior
    • opportunity
    • personal and social vulnerability (self-esteem)
  13. Influential Health Behavior Factors - Self-Affirmation
    actively telling oneself good things about oneself; ultimate goal of "the self" is to protect and image of its self-integrity morality and adequacy
  14. Health Belief Model
    • depends on two "beliefs":
    • 1. threat/suspectibility and severity
    • 2. effectiveness and costs
  15. Benefits of Health Belief Model
    • explains prevention behaviors well
    • provides clear avenues for intervention
  16. Limitations of Health Belief Model
    explains only a small amount of variance in health behaviors

    very belief focused

    some components don’t lend themselves well to intervention

    beliefs don’t always translate into behavior
  17. Theory of Planned Behavior (Attitudes, subjective norms, perceived control/self-efficacy)
    • attitudes - similar to threat, effectiveness, and cost
    • subjective norms - perception of what others think about behavior and motivation to follow
    • perceived control/self-efficacy - similar to self efficiency
  18. Transtheoretical Model
    • identify themes across theories to analyze the stages and process we go through to change our behavior
    • involves different stages that require different processes; intervention must be tailored to fit these stages
  19. Transtheoretical Model Stages
    • 1. Precontemplation
    • 2. Contemplation
    • 3. Preparation
    • 4. Action
    • 5. Maintenance
    • 6. Relapse
  20. Transtheoretical Model Stages - Precontemplation
    no intention of changing behavior
  21. Transtheoretical Model Stages - Contemplation
    aware of the problem; thinking about change
  22. Transtheoretical Model Stages - Preparation
    intend to change; change not yet begun
  23. Transtheoretical Model Stages - Action
    modifying behavior; committing time and energy
  24. Transtheoretical Model Stages - Maintenance
    working to prevent relapse; consolidate gains
  25. Stigma
    the linking of social judgements about a characteristic to an individual who possesses (or is believed to possess) that characteristic
  26. Types of stigma
    • abominations of the body
    • blemishes of individual character
    • tribal stigma
  27. What are the 4 mechanisms through which stigmatization can occur?
    • negative treatment and discrimination
    • anticipation of future discrimination
    • expectancy confirmation/automatic activation
    • identity threat
  28. Stigmatization Mechanisms - Negative Treatment and Discrimination
    • interpersonal - experiences vary in form and severity
    • institutional - stigma affects individuals through societal systems
  29. Stigmatization Mechanisms - Anticipation of Future Discrimination
    • negative psychological consequences
    • change behaviors conceal or reduce the visibility of their stigma
  30. Stigmatization Mechanisms - Expectancy Confirmation
    self-fulfilling prophecies - we act in ways that elicit confirmation by other of our beliefs or attirbutions about them
  31. Stigmatization Mechanisms - Automatic Activation (Stereotype threat)
    pressure and anxiety experienced by members of a stereotyped group when they fear being seen through the lens of stereotype
  32. Stigmatization Mechanisms - Identity threat (Attributional Ambiguity)
    consequence of other mechanisms; describes how interpersonal stigma becomes internalized
  33. Consequences of Stigma
    effects on psychological well-being, physical health, and behavior
  34. Consequences of Stigma - Psychological Well-being
    stigma tied individuals are greater risk for depression, anxiety, loneliness, and low self-esteem
  35. Consequences of Stigma - Physical Health
    • stigmatized individuals at greater risk for:
    • self-reported ill health, self-reported number of physical health symptoms, sick days, prostate cancer, breast cancer, infant mortality, shorter life expectancies
  36. Consequences of Stigma - Behavior
    suicidality, interpersonal interactions, stereotype consisten behavior, bad health behaviors, decrease in the likelihood of seeking care
  37. HIV vs. AIDS (definition)
    Human Immunodeficiency Virus


    Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
  38. How is HIV transmitted?
    must exit an infected person thru T4 cells in bodily fluids and enter an uninfected person's blood stream through tears or openings in the skin or mucous membranes
  39. PEP (Post-exposure Prophylaxis)
    refers to taking anti-HIV medications within 72 hours of a high-risk exposure for 28 days; stops viral replication

    no randomized controlled trials; little information about best regimens
  40. PrEP (Pre-exposure Prophylaxis)
    refers to HIV negative individuals taking anti-HIV medications HIV; many side effects (important - liver functionality effects, bone mineral deterioration; bothersome - nausea, diarrhea)
  41. Models of Patient Provider Relationship(Szasz & Hollender, 1956) - Activity-Passivity
    actor (does something to patient) ↦ recipient (unable to respond)

    patient does not contribute to interaction
  42. Models of Patient Provider Relationship(Szasz & Hollender, 1956) - Guidance-Cooperation
    Advisor (tells patient what to do) ↦ Adherent (cooperates/obeys advice)

    patient has feelings, but does not question doctor; power granted to doctor by seeking help
  43. Models of Patient Provider Relationship(Szasz & Hollender, 1956) - Mutual Participation
    Assistant (helps patient help himself) ↦ Participant (in partnership with expert)

    treatment of chronic illness. rehabitation
  44. Models of Patient-Provider Communication
    (Emanuel & Emanuel, 1992) - Paternalistic
    provider role - patients guardian promotes patient's well being

    patient role - adherent and grateful
  45. Models of Patient-Provider Communication(Emanuel & Emanuel, 1992) - Informative
    • provider role: technical support
    • obligation - provide relevant info

    patient role: listener and evaluator
  46. Models of Patient-Provider Communication(Emanuel & Emanuel, 1992) - Deliberative
    • provider role - educator
    • obligation - provide relevant info

    • patient role - open to development
    • patient autonomy - choice of and control over care
  47. Models of Patient-Provider Communication(Emanuel & Emanuel, 1992) - Interpretive
    • provider role - elucidator
    • obligation - assist patient in decision
    • patient role - listener
    • patient autonomy - choice and control over care
  48. What are some barriers to Patient-Provider communication?
    • inattentiveness
    • use of jargon
    • language
    • impersonalization
  49. Barriers to Patient-Provider -  Inattentiveness (Audiotaped office visits (Beckman & Frankel))
    • 23% of doctors allowed patients to finish concern before diagnosis
    • 69% interrupted after 18-22 seconds
  50. Barriers to Patient-Provider - Use of Jargon
    • used to impress patient
    • due to training
    • keeps patients from asking too many questions
  51. Barriers to Patient-Provider - Impersonalization ("It's How He Said It" Study)
    • 10 second clips from 1st and last minutes
    • intonation, pitch, speed, and rhythm rated on warmth, concern, dominance, sympathy
Card Set:
2014-04-08 04:24:57
healthpsychology psychology healthbehaviors stigma HIV patientproviderrelationships

card set for psych test 3, lectures 12-15
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