Spacecraft Systems Exam 3

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coffeya
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269704
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Spacecraft Systems Exam 3
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2014-04-08 01:15:39
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spacecraft
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  1. ____ is another term commonly used for a spacecraft primary structure
    Bus
  2. Three basic types of spacecraft structural elements used for support and load are columns. ____ & _____ and _____
    • frames
    • trusses
    • structural plates
  3. The favored shape used for the structures of early Soviet spacecraft was the _____
    sphere
  4. Vacuum effects on solid materials including metals can produce _________, which could result in the formation of "whiskers."
    sublimation
  5. Both solar wind and cosmic ray particles present potentially ______ effects on surface materials in space, including metals
    erosive
  6. Atomic oxygen that oxidizes metal surfaces in low-Earth orbit requires a ______ _______ for protection of spacecraft surfaces
    durable coatings
  7. Torques from external magnetic fields can be
    minimized by avoiding __________ materials in the spacecraft.
    ferromagnetic
  8. Although the most abundant particles in space are extremely small, spacecraft _____ ______ and _____ can be significant over long periods of exposure
    surface erosion and pitting
  9. Charge buildup from ____ _____ and _______ makes careful grounding necessary for both metal and composite structures.
    solar wind and radiation
  10. One of the most effective spacecraft debris shields is not a thick, solid chamber walls, but a ________ _____ that disperses any impacting particle energy over a large area.
    standoff shield
  11. One of the serious disadvantages of using titanium for spacecraft structures is that it is difficult to ______.
    machine
  12. Many of the early American spacecraft, and even some today, employ an _______ shaped bus structure
    octagonal
  13. A spacecraft is subjected to high amplitude ______ and ______ loads during launch and its ascent phase
    vibrations and acoustic
  14. The greatest vibrational energy source on a spacecraft during its operation (launch through termination) is in the _____ phase
    ascent
  15. The vibrational frequency of an elongated structural element will be _______ if its length is increased
    decrease
  16. The vibrational frequency of an elongated structural element will be _______ if its mass is increased
    decrease
  17. The strength or amplitude of a resonant vibration in a structural element will ______ as the difference in the resonant frequency and the drive frequency becomes smaller (drive frequency approaches the resonant frequency).
    increase
  18. Can the amplitude of the vibrational
    (drive) frequencies on a launch vehicle change with altitude?
    Yes
  19. The highest range in temperature range in the solar system is at/near the planet _______.
    Mercury
  20. The narrowest range of temperatures in the solar system is at/near the planet ______
    Pluto
  21. The temperature of a surface material with high emissivity would have a _____ temperature compared to material of low emissivity
    lower
  22. The temperature of a surface material with high absorptivity would have a ______ temperature compared to material of low absorptivity
    higher
  23. Temperature is a measure of _____ energy
    heat
  24. A temperature that has reached a relatively constant value is called _______ temperature
    equilibrium
  25. Kirchkoff's law suggests that a material with high emissivity (ɑ) also has ____ absorptivity (ϵ).
    high
  26. ______ paint is an example of a coating/material has both high ɑ and high ϵ.
    Black
  27. Of the heat transfer mechanisms used on spacecraft, only ______ systems and ______ systems are used for heat removal.
    passive and active
  28. Except for heat pipes, _______ heat transfer is not significant on spacecraft because of the lack of gravity.
    convection
  29. ____ radiates as a blackbody
    Sun
  30. According to the zeroth law of thermodynamics, heat always flows from ___ to ____
    hot to cold
  31. An active thermal control system uses ______ and/or ______ systems
    mechanical and or electrical
  32. The most extreme temperatures are moderated by a spacecraft's ______ thermal control system components.
    passive
  33. The most extreme heat source in the inner solar system come from ____.
    sun
  34. The approximate energy available from solar radiation in the visible and IR at 1 AU is approximately _____ W/m2
    1340
  35. At Mars (1.52 AU), this would be approximately ___ W/m2
    590
  36. Heat energy radiated from a surface is proportional to the equivalent temperature of the surface to the ____ power.
    4th
  37. One of the most common surface coatings for spacecraft radiators is Z___.
    306
  38. A heat pipe is an example of a _______
    thermal control system
    passive
  39. The approximate lowest temperature available on a spacecraft using radiative cooling is __K.
    60
  40. The Space Shuttle used ______ for the cooling fluid in its external active cooling loop.
    hydrogen
  41. The International Space Station uses ______
    for the cooling fluid in its external active cooling loop.
    ammonia
  42. Thermoelectric cooling employs the _____
    effect by using electrical energy for cooling.
    seebeck
  43. The Mercury spacecraft used _______ for
    it high-temperature, high-strength structural material.
    titanium
  44. The Mercury capsule used a/an _______
    type of material for its heat shield
    abaltive
  45. The highest temperature region near the Mercury capsule was the shock from that reached nearly ______ F during reentry
    3,000
  46. A higher beta angle (related to orbit inclination angle) will _______ the maximum temperature (and heat loading) of an orbiting spacecraft compared to a lower beta angle.
    increase
  47. Guidance is generally assumed to be the ______ phase of a booster's or spacecraft's flight
    thrust
  48. Gravity gradient is a ______ type of attitude stabilization
    passive
  49. To prevent over-controlling and wasting energy or propellants, the accuracy of the attitude control component of a guidance, navigation & control system (GNC) should be ____ than the
    accuracy of the attitude determination component
    less
  50. The three basic types of attitude and trajectory acceleration sensors are
    • Acceleration 
    • Gyroscopic 
    • Optical
  51. The two types of motion sensors that relate to the two types of motion are ______ and _______.
    rotational and translational
  52. A ring ____ gyro can measure both types of motion on a spacecraft
    laser
  53. ____ trackers are used to determine the position of a spacecraft in three dimensions.
    Star
  54. A horizon or limb sensor is used to find the relative position of a spacecraft with respect to a celestial body's _______ or _____.
    position or cone
  55. Optical terrain guidance was used in the ______-manned spacecraft.
    mercury
  56. The military's NAVSTAR Global Positioning System (GPS) can be used to determine position and velocity for spacecraft in ___ orbit
    LEO
  57. Spacecraft attitude and trajectory control can be either _____ or ______, or both
    active or passive
  58. Solar radiation (photon) pressure can be used for spacecraft and ______ attitude and trajectory control, as was the case for the Mariner 10
    passive
  59. The two fundamental types of attitude spin stabilization are simple ____ and dual-____.
    simple spin and dual-spun
  60. Three-axis spacecraft attitude control if furnished by either _______ or by _______ control, or both
    thrusters or gyroscopic
  61. The most accurate of the three gyroscopic control systems is the _______ _______.
    reaction wheels
  62. The greatest torque of the three gyroscopic control systems is provided by the _______ ________ gyros
    control moment
  63. Accumulated error in a spacecraft or aircraft navigation system is also called _____ error.
    drift
  64. The Apollo spacecraft used a basic _____ guidance system with optical measurements to refine absolute position
    GN&C
  65. Apollo's optical guidance instruments
    included both a telescope and a _____ tracker.
    star
  66. The heart of the Apollo inertial navigation unit was the _________ _______ Unit (IMU) which was also incorporated in the Space Shuttle's inertial navigation system
    intertial measuring
  67. The two hand controllers in the Apollo Command Module were the ______ controller and the _______ controller, both of which are found on the Space Shuttle flight deck
    • rotation 
    • translation
  68. The Apollo Command and Service Module employed _______ jets to control the attitude of the spacecraft.
    reaction
  69. A flight director- ______ indicator was used for the 3-dimensional positional and velocity information display for the Apollo astronauts, similar to what is found on the Space Shuttle flight deck.
    attitude
  70. The two primary attitude and trajectory sensors for the U.S. segment of the International Space Station (ISS) are the _____
    gyros and the _____.
    • rate
    • GPS
  71. The U.S. segment employs ____-_______ units for the attitude control element on the ISS
    non-propulsive
  72. The ISS Russian segment uses both ____-_____ and ______ units for attitude control.
    non-propulsive and propulsive
  73. The ______ vector carries the attitude, position, and time data used for the ISS GN&C
    functions
    position
  74. The Russian equivalent of the GPS system is
    called ________
    GLONASS
  75. Aerodynamic drag or _______ _______ can be used for slowing spacecraft in orbits around planets with atmospheres, which reduces
    the total retrograde thrust needed for orbit insertion
    aerodynamic pressure
  76. The _____ gradient force is used to desaturate the momentum exchange devices (CMGs, Gyrodynes) on the ISS
    gravity
  77. Pointing calculations and control operations are needed for the ISS ________, _________ and solar arrays
    antennas and radiators

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