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1803 purchase of the entire Louisiana Territory from France by United States in exchange for $15 million. Alarmed by rumors that Spain intended to sell some of its trans-Mississippi territory to France, Jefferson attempted to purchase the city of New Orleans. Robert R. Livingston, America’s minister in France shrewdly negotiated with France and acquired the whole territory for a modest sum. It significance is that doubles the size of United States at the same time and creates more conflict with the natives, and create border disputes with Spain and Britain.
Young Indian woman who accompanied Lewis and Clark’s expedition into the West in 1805 -1806. She aided the exploration by serving as a translator and assuring Indian tribes they encounter along the way that the group was not hostile. She had a newborn baby, which assisted by letting others see that they were not dangerous.
Astute wife of President James Madison who managed an elaborate social network that played an important part in shaping political careers in Washington. She also helped open up the White House to the public and enhanced the power and legitimacy of the presidency. She holds weekly crushes to make political connections for James Madison. Role of women in late 18th early 19th century and their role in politics. While not having the right to vote, not having a right to say still been able to manipulate situations.
1820. The congressional legislation that allow Missouri to enter the Union as a slave state by joining its administration with that of Maine as a free state and declaring the latitude 36°30’ the southern boundary of Missouri would serve as a permanent line dividing slave from free states. The dispute demonstrated southerners’ increasing concern about the national balance of the power between slave and free states.
Seven Years’ War
French-Indian War- 1754-1763-Conflict that grew out of dispute among Britain, France and Indian tribes over claims to the land in North America. The war expanded to encompass much of Europe and its overseas possessions. It also contributed to deteriorating relations between Britain and its North America colonies in the 1760s. The Treaty of Paris marked the conclusion of the conflict in 1763. Its most important point is that sets the stage for the Revolution, and became the War that made America.
The notion, propounded by British Parliament in the mid-to late 18th century, that the House of Commons represented all British subjects wherever they were and regardless of whether those subjects had directly voted for their representatives. Prime Minister George Grenville used this idea to argue the Stamp Act and other parliamentary taxes on colonists did not constitute taxation without consent. American colonists rejected this argument insisting that political representatives derived authority only from explicit citizens’ consent (indicated by elections), and that members of a distant government body were incapable of adequately representing their interests.
Coercive (Intolerable) Acts
Four laws passed by Parliament aimed at punishing Massachusetts for dumping tea into Boston harbor as a protest of the Tea Act. The acts closed the Boston port as of June 1, 1774, until the destroyed tea had been paid for; changed the Massachusetts charter, reasserting Parliament’s authority over the colony and suspending civil government in the colony; required that any royal official accused of a capital crime be tried in Britain; and allowed commanders to lodge soldiers wherever necessary, even in private households. The acts spread alarm among colonists. Many colonists view this acts as a violation of their constitutional rights and their natural rights, therefore view the acts as a threat to the liberties of all British American, as a result more colonist wanted to go against Britain.
Republican Motherhood –women bore the important responsibility of educating their sons in the principles of liberty and government. 1790s, some argued, that female education was necessary because it would produce better mothers, who in turn would produce better citizens. Although female education started to rise up, it didn't change the traditional gender relations. Female that got an education can only use their knowledge in the domestic service.
Conflict that exploded in western Pennsylvania in 1794 after Hamilton convinced Congress to fund the national debt by means of a 25% excise tax on whiskey, to be paid by farmers when they delivered grain to the distillery. Cash-short grain farmers protested that the tax was a severe economic hardship and seven thousand planned to march in Pittsburgh. Washington personally headed an army to put down the rebellion, but the demonstrators had dispersed by the time the army arrived. Its importance is that the new federal government stood up for the law they have pass and corrected civil disorder.
Alien and Sedition Acts
Laws passed by the new U.S. government in the 1798 that restricted the rights of immigrants and criminalized criticism of the president or Congress. Alien acts expanded the waiting time from 4 to 14 years to become a citizen and require that all immigrants register with federal government. And in times of war the president had the power to deport any foreigner that might be potentially dangerous for the United States. The acts reflected concerns about political instability and the danger of war with France. Though the Alien and Sedition Acts expired in 1802, the government’s struggle to balance the need for security with individual rights and continues to the present day
Second Continental Congress
The elective body that gathered in Philadelphia on May 10, 1775, and was responsible for both preparing for war and pursuing reconciliation with Britain. Most delegates at this time are not prepared to break with Britain. Some think that some monarchial figure still be the best type of government. Most think that a republican type of government if not going to work very well on any but in very small places. They are thinking they want to keep their ties with Britain and want the military protection. Most of the people want the independence is going to be from Massachusetts. Delegates agree that a military buildup might be ok; they created the Continental Army and chose as their head General George Washington. They also draw up a declaration on the causes and necessities of creating an army. Allow currency of $2 million to pay for the military buildup. The Second Continental Congress later creates the Olive Branch Petition says to the king we will make peace.
Declaration of Independence
Document drafted by Thomas Jefferson stating the colonies’ case for independence. In it Jefferson articulates principles about natural rights, the right of revolution, the consent of the governed, and the natural equality of “all men” and enumerates more than two dozen grievances against King George. The congress formally adopted the document on July 4, 1776. All the colonies adopted the document by July 4, with the exception of New York that hold out until July 15, 1776 and joined the Independence. Northern colonies will benefit the most, no occupation by troops, and they can get their goods from anywhere. The southern colonies will lose the most since the will no longer have the permanent tobacco trade with Britain
Articles of Confederation
Plan devised by the Continental Congress in November 1777 for forming the national government as a loose confederation of states. The plan did not provide for an executive or national judiciary and instead relied on a congress. The effort to protect Revolutionary principles such as taxation by direct representation made the central government very weak. Look for a small central government roll. Limits the ability that Congress has, its only be able to conduct foreign relations, issues of war and peace, regulate trade, and correspondence.
The idea that government needs to rest on the consent of the governed and work in the interest of the public at large. To some people in the 1770s, it invoked a way of thinking about leaders as autonomous, virtuous, public-minded citizens who placed civic values above private interest. For others, it suggested direct democracy, with nothing standing in the way of the will of the people. For all, it meant government that promoted the people’s welfare. The Anti-Federalists feared a national government led by distant, self-interested leaders who needed to be held in check. In the 1790s, these two conceptions of republicanism and of leadership would be tested in real life. And to a degree, these competing visions of leadership, diversity, democracy, and corruption still animate American public life today.
Although the United States denied its female citizens equality in public
life, some women were able to exert considerable influence. How did they do so?
In your answer, discuss the legal, political, and educational status of women
in the early Republic.
In the legal aspect woman did not have any rights in public life otherwise known as Feme Covert (covert women), that meant that everything belong to the husband. Any influence they have it would be between their marriage. So the women that we see in the public have very close significance to their husband affairs. So education would play a big role because they will have to social network and been able to communicate more than just, the later actions. Single women could own property and pay taxes but she could not vote with the exception of N.J. before 1807. None of the laws applied to black women. Most of those that would exert considerably influence would probably be those with monetary means. They wanted their voices be heard by women and men. One of the women that exerted was Dolley Madison; she had and education, she knew how to influence politics by social networking. As well as Abigail Adams; she was an educated woman able to influence the public thought her writing and husband. The most dramatic opportunity came with the flowering of female academies. Emma Willard founded one of these academies in N. Y in 1821.
Even before the colonies had committed to independence, they faced the
likelihood of serious military conflict. How did they mobilize for war? In your
answer, discuss specific challenges they faced, noting the unintended consequences
of their solutions.
They mobilized weapons out of mayor cities were British were not going to search, one of the consequences was that the weapons and people were scattered. Militias weren't well train nor organized, not have discipline, didn’t have an organized structure. The government gave themselves $2 million to make an army and they didn't have the golden silver to back it up so they ruin their economy and inflation happened. In order to get more men to enlist they were offering an incentive; some land and a little of money. As a result more poor men (farmers) were enlisting in the army. Thinking on the loyalty are those signing do they belief in the cause or are they signing to get the land? Also they forgot to include slave and Native Americans when they mobilize for war, most of the Native American groups end up supporting British troops.
What other grievances, besides taxation, led colonists by 1775 to openly
rebel against Britain?
- 7 year war let to Proclamation of 1763 no British colonist settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains in the Ohio Valley they can go and settle on the land that they just fought for. Land was
- given to France but British colonist pay for the expenses of the war.
- Occupation/ Quartering Act American colonist have to provide British troops with housing and provisions or pay to
- make barracks for British troops.
- Close Boston port. Hurt a lot of the colonies that use Boston as a trade center, Boston port was one of the biggest
- commercial/ trade centers at the time.
- Government act no local legislative bodies, the elected assembly in Boston can't met anymore, means they will have
- no local government they are subjective to parliament.
Quebec Act acts
- Justice Act trail for capital punishments to England. Incidents where colonist might get kill will no longer be trail in the colony itself, but in England. Taking the away jurisdiction
- from the locals back to the Royal government.
as an antagonist meaning that since Britain have obtain Quebec during that period is going to allow the French-Canadian to maintain the independent government, they are going to be able to practice their religion; Catholicism, and the land of the Ohio Valley is going to go to the Quebec’s.