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  1. are eukaryotes multi-cellular?
    can be either single or multi cellular
  2. do eukaryotes have dna or rna
  3. do eukaryotes hace a nuclear envelope?
  4. do eukaryotes have many cytoplasmic organelles
  5. are eukaryotes considered living?
  6. are prokaryotes multi cellular?
    no single celled
  7. do prokaryotes have rna or dna
    simple dna
  8. do prokayotes have a nuclear envelope
  9. do prokaryotes have many organelles
    no the have few organelles
  10. are prokaryotes "living"
  11. are viruses multi cellular
    no they are not cells
  12. do viruses have rna or dna
    they can have either one but not both
  13. do viruses have a nuclear envelope
    they have an envelope but it is not the same as a nuclear envelope
  14. are viruses "living"
    no they need a host cell to survive
  15. what is the spontaneous generation concept
    life came from non-living matter or it just happened spontaneously
  16. developed pastuerization, did experiment with flask that had a bent spout, disprove spontaneous generation, also contributed to the beginning of germ theory
    louise pastuer
  17. developed kochs postulates using germ theory to prove that the development of specific organisms caused specific diseases
    robert koch
  18. observed milk maids who had cowpox did not get small pox, first immunizations
    edward jenner
  19. found cholera is spread by contaminated water. led to treating sewage
    john snow
  20. set standards of sterilization and cleanliness of hospitals
    florence nightengale
  21. five ways microorganisms can be helpful
    • recycling vital elements
    • sewage treatments
    • bioremidiation
    • insect pest control
    • biotechnology
  22. what are three types of chemical reactions
    • synthesis
    • decompisition
    • exchange
  23. define matter
    anything that has mass and occupies space
  24. what are three kinds of subatomic particles that make up atoms
    • electrons
    • protons
    • nutrons
  25. when everything stays the same excpet the number of electrons change what is it called?
  26. when the number of nutrons change it is called what
  27. what happens when the number of protons change
    the element changes
  28. a bond that shares electrons in the outer valence shell. strongest of bonds
    covalent bonds
  29. a bond where valence electrons are transferred not shared
    ionic bond
  30. a bond between hydrogen atoms. very weak bond
    hydrogen bond
  31. what is the basic subunit of protein
    amino acids
  32. what is the basic subunit of carbs
    sugar and starch
  33. what is the basic subunit of lipids
    fats and phospholipids
  34. subunits of nucleic acid
    • 5 carbon sugar
    • phosphate group
    • nitrogen base
  35. what are the subunits of dna
    • guanine
    • cytosine
    • thyamine
    • adenine
  36. what is the name of a bacteria that has a spherical shape?
  37. what are rod shaped bacteria
  38. what are spiral shaped bacteria called
  39. what bacteria is curved rods with some flaggela
  40. what bacteria are corkscrew shaped
  41. what is gram positive
    layers of alternating nam and nag structure
  42. what is gram negative
    have a little bit of nam and nag and the has lipopolysaccharide
  43. what bacteria has helical and flexible with cilia like motile extensions
  44. what are chain like patterns
  45. what is the prefix for bacteria in pairs
  46. what is the prefix for a bacteria with multiple planes
  47. what is responsible for cell to cell communication
  48. what is responsible for cell protection
    plasma membrane
  49. what holds all of the intracellular organelles
  50. what organelle is is very important for cell division, endo and exocytosis
  51. what is responsible for lipid and carb synthesis
    endoplasmic reticulum
  52. what is responsible for packaging protein
    golgi appartaus
  53. what pinches off the golgi appartaus and is responsible for digesting intracellular debris
  54. what breaks down proteins and lipids for metabolism
  55. what is the power source for the cell
  56. what converts sunlight to chemical energy
  57. what translates mRNA
  58. what is storage for fluids, ingested particles, and soluble materials
  59. what is responsible for organizitaion of metabolism, transport, enzyme storage, chamber for chemical reactions
  60. what are the steps for gram staining
    • 1. set specimen to glass slide
    • 2. drop crystal violet on sample
    • 3. wash
    • 4. drop sample with iodine
    • 5. rinse
    • 6. add decoloring agent EtOH
    • 7. add safranin and wash and air dry
  61. what kind of stain is used for bacteria that have mycolic acid in their cell wall
    acid fast
  62. what kind of stain is used to diagnose TB, Leprosy, cryptospiridium,
    acid fast stain
  63. what stain is very common and is used to stain blood samples to see the different cell time
    wrights stain
  64. anthrax and staph are an example of what
    gram +
  65. e coli is an example of what
    gram -
  66. what are two kinds of chemical reactions that make/break bonds
    • anabolic
    • catabolic
  67. what kind of reactions use one energy source for more than one reaction
    coupled reactions
  68. what are 6 types of enzyme classifications
    • oxidoreductase
    • transferase
    • hydrolase
    • lyase
    • isomerase
    • ligase
  69. ox-redox reaction, gain/loss of hydrogen or oxygen
  70. enzyme that transfers function groups
  71. enzyme that adds water, hydroleses
  72. what enzymes remove a group of atoms without hydrolisis
  73. what enzyme rearranges the functional groups
  74. what enzyme joins two molocules using energy from atp breakdown
  75. what are two types of enzyme inhibition
    competative and non competative
  76. what are three ways that atp is made
    • substrate level phosphorylation
    • oxidative phosphorylation
    • photophosphorylation
  77. ATP that is made through direct energy transfer is
    substrate level phosphorylation
  78. ATP that is made using protein and enzyme complex
    oxidative phosphorylation
  79. ATP that is made through photosynthesis is
  80. what are the physical requirements for baterial growth
    • temp
    • pH
    • osmotic pressure
  81. what are chemical requirments for bacterial growth
    • trace elements
    • oxygen
    • carbon
    • carbon dioxide
    • nitrogen
  82. what are three ways to differentiate between microorganisms
    • morphological (size & shape)
    • differential staining
    • biochemical testing
  83. what kind of biochemical testing uses host blood that has been infected to determine inefective agent
  84. what kind of biochemical testing uses PCR, restriction enzymes and determine the entire sequence of dna
    DNA fingerprinting
  85. what biochemical tests amplifies dna using the PCR because the amoung of pathogen originally obtained may be to small to see
    DNA amplification
  86. used to deterimine unknown dna strand by adding know dna to the solution and see what attaches
    nucleic acid hybridization
  87. what is it called to remove ALL micro organisms
  88. what is an enviroment or procedure free of all pathogens
  89. physical or chemical agents that destroy micro organisms
  90. to remove microbes from a surface by scrubbing
  91. the process of disinfecting an area or object to meet specific public health guidlines
  92. the use of heat to reduce the number of microbes in a particular food or beverage
  93. what are two ways that anti microbial agents work
    • alteration of the cell wall
    • damage the proteins and nucleic acid
  94. what are three things that affect the efficiency of anti microbial agents
    • the site to be treated
    • the susceptibility of the microbes
    • enviromental conditions (temp and pH)
  95. what are 6 physical methods to control microbes
    • heat
    • refrigeration/freezing
    • desication/ lyophilization
    • filtration
    • osmotic pressure
    • radiation
  96. denatures proteins so cell walls and other cell parts fall apart
  97. cold temps slow metabolism and remove free water needed for chemical reactions
  98. slow freezing produce ice crystals that break the plasma membrane
  99. drying out and dry freezing
    desication and lyophilization
  100. pass fluid through a fine filtration membrane
  101. uses high concentrations of sugar and salt to create hypertonic solutions
    osmotic pressure
  102. breaks the bonds in the pathogens DNA
  103. what are the chemical methods of microbial control
    • phenols and phenolics
    • halogens
    • oxidizing agents
    • heavy metals
    • aldehydes
    • gaseous agents
    • enzymes 
    • antibiotics
    • enzymes
  104. chemical method disrupts cell membranes and denatures proteins and cytoplasmic membranes
    phenols and phenolics
  105. chemical method denatures proteins
  106. destroys structure of microbes
    oxidizing agents
  107. binds with cystine to denature proteins
    heavy metals
  108. binds with proteins and nucleic acid to break apart dna
  109. penetrates packaging and destroys dna
    gaseous agents
  110. digest microbes
  111. looks like long rods that can be rigid or flexible . example rabies and ebola
    helical viruses
  112. shaped as an icosagedron
    example polio
    polyhedral viruses
  113. capsids are often covered by and envelope can also be helical or polyhedral. ex influenza.
    enveloped virus
  114. habe complex structure like a t4 bacteriophage has a head a tail sheath and tail fibers, plate and pin
    complex viruses
  115. the common cold, single stranded rna+, nonenveloped
  116. norwalk or norovirus, single stranded rna+, nonenveloped
  117. enveloped, single strand rna - causes influenza
  118. what are the steps for an RNA + viral infection to reproduce
    • virus attaches to host
    • host brings virus into cytoplasm and rna+ is released into the virus
    • rna+ migrates to robosomes and acts like Mrna but it is not
    • host will translate rna and make proteins for the virus
    • virus will assemble the pieces and release
  119. what are the steps for an RNA - viral infection to reproduce
    • Virus attaches to host
    • The host brings virus into cytoplasm and RNA- is released, RNA- has to be changed
    • into RNA+ by the virus enzymes
    • RNA+ migrates to ribosomes acting
    • like mRNA
    • Host will translate RNA+ and make proteins for the virus
    • Virus will assemble
    • Virus is released
  120. what are the steps for a DNA viral infection
    • virus attaches to the host
    • virus is brought into the cytoplasm dna migrates to the nucleus and is incorporated into the host dna
    • host will transcribe the dna into mrna and then make proteins for the virus
    • virus will assemble and then release
  121. what are the steps for a retro virus infection
    • virus will attach to host
    • virus injects or tricks its way into the cytoplasm 
    • reverse transcriptilase
    • rna to dna
    • other enzyme copies dna
    • intigrase splices dna
    • makes protein parts every time the cell divides
    • protein parts assemble to make adult virus
    • virus release
    • example HIV
  122. what is the main target for HIV attachement
    helper T cells
  123. what type of virus is HIV
    retro virus
  124. what is a latent infection
    can remain dormant for a long period of time ( cold sores, herpes virus)
  125. what is a persistant virus
    the amount of detectable virus increases over time, typically fatal
  126. very deadly, involves only proteins no dna or rna
  127. what are two examples of prions
    • mad cow disease
    • creutzfeldt-jakobs
Card Set:
2014-04-25 04:31:02
fortis microbiology

micro biology notes
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